Took control of present-day France; the first true knights of the Middle Ages.
The trial of a criminal or civil action, in medieval England, by torture or drowning. The proof of innocence is they lived or died.
Latin word for middle ages.
Refers to monks who lived in monasteries where they dedicated themselves to doing God's work.
Rooms where the monks would hand copy books.
Offering (money) you gave to the church; 1/10 of your income.
Series of holy wars during the Middle Ages Christians wanted to take back the holy city of Jerusalem from the Muslims.
Head of the Catholic Church.
Religious journey made by people in the Middles Ages to holy places.
Something that belonged to or was touched by Jesus or a saint. A treasured relic might be bone fragment or a tiny piece of the cross.
Crime of speaking out against the teachings of the Catholic Church.
A period of prolonged and intensive questioning or investigation.
King of the Franks (Modern day France) who unified Europe by spreading Christianity. He was crowned Emperor of Christendom by the Pope in 800 BCE.
In 911 the King of the Franks gave a part of northern France to some Viking raiders. The region was called Normandy, from the French word "Norman" meaning "men from the north".
A political & Social institution of the Middle Ages; looked like a pyramid based on land ownership & social class.
Nobles who received land from the king.
Lesser lord who owed loyalty & military service to a lord or king.
Warriors on horseback; began training age 7 (a page), at 14 became a squire, 21 yrs. old became a knight.
Peasant who worked and lived on the manor farm for the lord.
A knight's code of honor.
Mock battles between knights.
A woman's father arranged her marriage. A woman's main duty was to raise a large family. Education of girls focused on practical skills, girls learned to spin, weave, and cook.