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The arteries which run between the medullary pyramids:
Regarding renal plasma clearance:
It is the ability of the kidney to clear the plasma of certain substance.
The process which removes the unwanted substances from glomerular capillary bed.
It is a measure of the effectiveness of the kidney to remove substances from ECF.
All of the above.
Glomerular filtration rate:
The percentage of renal plasma flow that becomes a glomerular filtrate.
The volume of fluid filtered from glomerular capillaries into bowman's capsule per unit time.
Both A & B.
Non of the above.
Decreased renal blood flow will lead to:
Increased glomerular capillary pressure.
Both A & C.
Sever constriction of efferent arterioles leads to:
Increased plasma osmotic pressure.
Both B & C.
Inversely proportional to the permeability of glomerular membrane.
Directly proportional to plasma proteins concentration.
Directly proportional to the diameter of afferent arterioles.
According amino acids reabsorption:
Reabsorbed partially by 2ry active process.
Reabsorbed completely by 1ry active process.
Reabsorbed partially by 1ry active process.
Reabsorbed completely by 2ry active process.
65% of filtered water is reabsorbed in:
Proximal tubule by facilitated diffusion.
Distal tubule by facultative reabsorption.
Proximal tubule by passive diffusion.
Which of the following is true about Loop of Henle:
The thin ascending limb is permeable to water.
The thick descending limb is impermeable to water.
25% of Na+ & Cl-- are reabsorbed In it.
The thick ascending limb of loop of Henle:
Maintains a low intercellular sodium concentration.
Have a co-transporter which transport 1Na+, 1K+& 1Cl--.
Maintains a negative electrical potential in the cell.
Regarding renal counter current mechanism:
It include loop of Henle & Vasa recta only.
Doesn't depend on the osmolality.
It is a mechanism of urine concentration.
The function of the countercurrent exchanger system in vasa recta:
Prevent removal of NaCl & urea from the interstitium.
Maintain the hypoosmolarity in the medullary pyramid.
Prevent water removal from the interstitium.
Allow urine & NaCl to pass to the circulation.
Kidney can excrete diluted urine when:
One drinks small amount of water.
Drinking a hypotonic fluid.
ADH secretion is stimulated.
Drug used to increase rate of urine production.
Inhibits carbonic anhydrase enzyme.
Block Na+ - K+ - Cl-- co-transporter.
Which of the following increase Na+ reabsorption: