primary hypertension is more common than secondary hypertension - true or false?
there is often an underlying disease process in secondary hypertension - true or false?
secondary hypertension can be reversed by....
malignant hypertension is manifested by intense artery spasm - true or false?
what are the impacts of malignant hypertension on the eye, brain and kidney?
clinical manifestations often appear early in hypertensive patients - true or false?
low stroke volume can be caused by which types of shock?
which types of shock cause vasodilation?
what are the clinical manifestations of non-progressive shock?
in progressive shock, blood pressure can be maintained - true or false?
in irreversible shock, tachycardia may lead to cardiac arrest - true or false?
urine output is usually decreased in shock patients - true or false?
what is stenosis?
what is regurgitation?
what are the complications of mitral valve stenosis?
heart murmur occuring after S2 is typical of....
aortic valve stenosis can lead to a decrease in systolic pressure, long term angina, syncope and dyspnoea - true or false?
aortic valve regurgitation can lead to..
artificial pacemakers are usually used for...
atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterised by...
in the atherosclerotic necrosis core, the accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the macrophages forms ....
angina is chest pain due to ischaemia, caused by what?
myocardial infarction is...
conduction defects are problems in...
heart failure is...
what are some factors that can lead to ischaemic injury?
stable plaques can easily rupture or burst, leading to blood clotting inside the artery - true or false?
stable plaques partially block vessels - true or false?
stable angina is caused by an increase in...
unstable angina can occur, with a sudden onset of pain, when?
silent myocardial ischaemia involves an absence of ...
variant/prinzmetal angina is caused by...
ischaemia deprives cells of which two factors needed for cellular metabolism?
infarction is most often caused by....
what does the typical pain pattern look like for a patient with myocardial infarction?
whats the typical ECG shape look like in myocardial infarction?
which tests would provide biochemical evidence of myocardial infarction?
what is dilated cardiomyopathy?
what are 3 possible causes of dilated cardiomyopathy?
what is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
what is restrictive cardiomyopathy?
in class 1 heart failure, physical activities are limited - true or false?
left sided heart failure usually causes pulmonary oedema - true or false?
right sided heart failure usually causes systemic oedema - true or false?
productive cough with pink frothy sputum is usually seen in left or right sided heart failure?
low output heart failure is characterised by what?
urine output is usually reduced in patients with heart failure - true or false? and why?
right sided heart failure usually occurs as a result of left sided heart failure - true or false?
list 3 manifestations of left sided heart failure
what are the mechanisms of organic nitrates?
what are commonly seen side effects of organic nitrates?
what is the mechanism of aspirin?
what is the mechanism of clopidogrel?
what is the mechanism of tirofiban?
what is the mechanism for heparin?
what is the mechanism of fibrinolytic drugs?
what is the first-line therapy option for patients with stable angina? what is the next step if this is ineffective?
what is the mechanism of oxygen used to treat acute coronary syndromes?
what is the mechanism of opioids used to treat acute coronary syndromes?
what is the mechanism of anti-platelets, anti-thrombins and thrombolytics used to treat acute coronary syndromes?
what is the mechanism of B-adrenoceptor blockers and ACE inhibitors used to treat acute coronary syndromes?
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed how long after patient presentation?
which is the most commonly prescribed 'first line' therapy in younger (under 55) patients with hypertension?
a stepped approach, in which new medications are added to current therapy until the target blood pressure is achieved, has what advantage?
what effect does angiotensin 2 have?
release of renin from the granular cells in the kidney in response to a fall in blood pressure results in...
which drug would be best to treat hypertension in pregnancy?
for which class of antihypertensives are the following adverse effects most common? - flushing and ankle oedema (vasodilation), and constipation (gastrointestinal nerves and smooth muscle)
what does angiotensin converting enzyme do? (ACE)
what would be the recommended treatment for a patient with a systolic blood pressure of 185, a diastolic pressure of 115, a low risk of cardiovascular event (<10%), and no evidence of end organ damage?
what can induce or aggravate hypertension?
an elderly patient (70) was given a thiazide diuretic for hypertension. after 6 weeks the doctor decided a second drug was needed to get her blood pressure to target. which would be most likely given her absence of complications?
activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in heart failure can be reduced by...
what are the major cardiac effects of digoxin?
which class of drugs is used to treat angina and promotes redistribution of coronary blood flow towards ischaemic areas in collaterals?