Microbiology Exam 2

Question 1 of 67

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ALL eaukaryotes contain

Select one of the following:

  • mitochondria

  • hydrogenosomes

  • a membrane-enclosed nucleus

  • all of the above

Question 2 of 67

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The endoplasmic reticulum is

Select one of the following:

  • continuous with the Golgi apparatus

  • located around the nuclear membrane but is not in actual contact with it.

  • a network of membranes continuous with the nuclear membrane.

  • all of the above.

Question 3 of 67

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The Golgi apparatus functions to

Select one of the following:

  • modify and secrete proteins to the external environment

  • sort proteins used within the cell

  • synthesize protiens

  • both modify and sort proteins into those destined for secretion and those that function in membrane structures

Question 4 of 67

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The foraminifera

Select one of the following:

  • are a major component of the White Cliffs of Dover

  • have shells known as tests

  • inhabit coastal marine environments

  • are all of the above

Question 5 of 67

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Which statement BEST describes the habitats of the fungi?

Select one of the following:

  • Most terrestrial fungi are animal parasites

  • Most fungi are aquatic, primarily marine aquatic

  • Most fungi are terrestrial and inhabit soil or dead plant matter

  • Most fungi are aquatic, primarily freshwater aquatic

Question 6 of 67

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Diatoms are

Select one of the following:

  • more closely related to slime molds than to algae

  • a type of fungus

  • morphologically symmetric

  • all of the above

Question 7 of 67

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Which algae are MOST closely related to plants?

Select one of the following:

  • euglenoids

  • red algae

  • brown algae

  • green algae

Question 8 of 67

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Where within a eukaryotic cell is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesized?

Select one of the following:

  • lysosome

  • cytoplasm

  • mitochondrion

  • nucleolus

Question 9 of 67

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What phenomenon accounts for the appearance of chloroplasts in some unicellular phototrophic eukaryotes?

Select one of the following:

  • endosymbiosis

  • sequencing of chloroplasts' SSU genes

  • secondary endosymbiosis

  • none of the above

Question 10 of 67

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The membrane-enclosed compartments that contain digestive enzymes in eukaryotic cells are called

Select one of the following:

  • mitosomes

  • lysosomes

  • stromas

  • cristae

Question 11 of 67

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Which microbial group is responsible for massive amphibian die-offs worldwide?

Select one of the following:

  • chytrids

  • zygomycetes

  • ciliates

  • cercozoans

Question 12 of 67

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Which of the following is NOT a member of the Eukarya?

Select one of the following:

  • protists

  • red algae

  • fungi

  • viruses

Question 13 of 67

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The amoebozoa use what structure for movement and feeding?

Select one of the following:

  • cilia

  • threadlike pseudopodia

  • lobe-shaped pseudopodia

  • flagella

Question 14 of 67

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Agents that kill bacteria are said to be

Select one of the following:

  • bacteriostatic

  • bacteriocidal

  • inhibitory

  • all of the above

Question 15 of 67

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The complete elimination of all microorganisms include viruses is called

Select one of the following:

  • disinfection

  • decontamination

  • sterilization

  • any of the above

Question 16 of 67

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The process by which macromolecules lose their structure and ability to function is called

Select one of the following:

  • thermal death

  • denaturation

  • sterilization

  • none of the above

Question 17 of 67

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UV radiation is antimicrobial, because

Select one of the following:

  • radiation generates magnetic poles that denature the cellular components

  • radiation generates significant amounts of heat within the given cell

  • energy present causes modifications or breaks in the DNA molecules

  • all of the above are true

Question 18 of 67

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Ergosterol inhibitors specifically target

Select one of the following:

  • viruses

  • fungi

  • bacteria

  • eukaryotes

Question 19 of 67

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A ________ filter is most often used to filter sterilize liquids.

Select one of the following:

  • microbistat

  • nucleation track

  • depth

  • membrane

Question 20 of 67

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The action of some bacteriolytic chemical agents can be observed by noting a(n)

Select one of the following:

  • decrease in turbidity of the medium

  • change in the color of the medium

  • increase in the turbidity of the medium

  • change in the surface tension of the medium

Question 21 of 67

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In the agar diffusion method of studying antimicrobial action, the _______ is measured.

Select one of the following:

  • turbidity of the medium

  • diameter of the zone of inhibition

  • distance between the microbial colonies

  • diameter of the individual microbial colonies

Question 22 of 67

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Polyoxins interfere with

Select one of the following:

  • chitin biosynthesis

  • fungal mitosis

  • cell membrane synthesis

  • all of the above

Question 23 of 67

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Of all known antibiotics that have been identified in nature, _________ are clinically useful.

Select one of the following:

  • 8-10%

  • <1%

  • 25-30%

  • 18-20%

Question 24 of 67

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Semisynthetic antibiotics

Select one of the following:

  • are natural antibiotics that have been purified by artificial means

  • have an artificially constructed core that stimulates the production of "natural products"

  • are natural antibiotics that have been chemically modified in the laboratory

  • are found in nature, but their rate of production is enhanced in the laboratory

Question 25 of 67

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Important targets of antibiotics in Bacteria are

Select one of the following:

  • DNA replication and transcription elements

  • the cytoplasmic membrane

  • the cell wall

  • all of the above

Question 26 of 67

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At present, the penicillins and the cephalosporins account for ___________ of all the antibiotics produced and used worldwide.

Select one of the following:

  • less than 10%

  • well over 70%

  • over 50%

  • about 25%

Question 27 of 67

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The B-lactam antibiotics

Select one of the following:

  • inhibit cell wall synthesis

  • inhibit protein synthesis

  • inhibit plasma membrane synthesis

  • prevent chromosomal replication

Question 28 of 67

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The absorption of _________ by chlorophylls begins the process of _________.

Select one of the following:

  • ATP / autotrophy

  • light energy / photosynthetic energy conservation

  • light quanta / autotrophy

  • ATP / photosynthetic energy conversion

Question 29 of 67

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In photosynthesis NADH and NADPH are produced from NAD+ and NADP+ by

Select one of the following:

  • oxidation reactions

  • reduction reactions

  • both oxidation and reduction reactions

  • neither oxidation nor reduction reactions

Question 30 of 67

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During oxygenic photosynthesis,

Select one of the following:

  • oxygen is produced

  • oxygen functions as a catalyst

  • oxygen is consumed

  • none of the above

Question 31 of 67

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Which statement is TRUE?

Select one of the following:

  • The cytochromes contain iron atoms; chlorophyll contains a magnesium atom at the center of the porphyrin ring

  • The cytochromes contain magnesium atoms; chlorophyll contains an iron atom at the center of the porphyrin ring

  • Both the cytochromes and chlorophyll contain an iron atom but not magnesium atom

  • Both the cytochromes and chlorophyll contain magnesium atom but not iron atom

Question 32 of 67

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Carotenoids

Select one of the following:

  • are involved in the capture of light energy

  • function primarily as photoprotective agents

  • are hydrophobic pigments that are present in photosynthetic membranes

  • do all of the above

Question 33 of 67

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The process by which electrons from the quinone pool are forced against the thermodynamic gradient to reduce NAD+ to NADH is called reverse

Select one of the following:

  • electron flow (reverse electron transport)

  • reduction

  • proton motive force

  • energy flow

Question 34 of 67

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The Calvin cycle

Select one of the following:

  • requires both ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase

  • is responsible for the fixation of CO2 into cell material

  • utilizes both NAD(P)H and ATP

  • does all of the above

Question 35 of 67

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The Calvin cycle

Select one of the following:

  • requires both ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase

  • is responsible for the fixation of CO2 into cell material

  • utilizes both NAD(P)H and ATP

  • does all of the above

Question 36 of 67

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The Calvin cycle

Select one of the following:

  • requires both ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase

  • is responsible for the fixation of CO2 into cell material

  • utilizes both NAD(P)H and ATP

  • does all of the above

Question 37 of 67

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The rapid and simplistic method of assaying for nitrogenase activity uses

Select one of the following:

  • one of several techniques, all of which require oxygen to be absent in the assay

  • growth tests that add different nitrogen sources into media

  • the acetylene reduction assay that exploits the nonspecificity of nitrogenase

  • mass spectrometry to observe 15N assimilation

Question 38 of 67

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In most caes, the final product of sulfur oxidation is

Select one of the following:

  • elemental sulfur

  • sulfate

  • hydrogen sulfide

  • thiosulfate

Question 39 of 67

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Ferrous iron oxidation generally occurs in environments with

Select one of the following:

  • alkaline condition

  • little or no light present

  • high oxygen content

  • high H+ concentrations

Question 40 of 67

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The reduction of N2(g) for use as a source of nitrogen for biosynthetic needs is called nitrogen

Select one of the following:

  • assimilation

  • reduction

  • oxidation

  • fixation

Question 41 of 67

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The only organisms that perform photosynthesis are ones that produce some form of

Select one of the following:

  • carotenoids

  • phycocyanin

  • chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll

  • phycoerythrin

Question 42 of 67

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What compound do most chemolithotrophs use as a source of carbon?

Select one of the following:

  • carbon dioxide

  • organic sources other than glucose

  • inorganic compounds

  • glucuse

Question 43 of 67

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Most protists are motile.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 44 of 67

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The biochemical reactions in the hydrogenosome are focuses on pyruvate oxidation.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 45 of 67

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Because H2 levels in oxic environments are transient, it is likely that aerobic hydrogen bacteria shift between chemoorganotrophy and chemolithotrophy depending on levels of organic compounds and hydrogen in their habitats.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 46 of 67

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The earliest diverging lineage of fungi are the

Select one of the following:

  • chytridiomycetes

  • ascomycetes

  • glomeromycetes

  • zygomycetes

Question 47 of 67

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Peroxisomes

Select one of the following:

  • originate in the cell by incorporating proteins and lipids from cytoplasm

  • divide in synchrony with the cell

  • become membrane enclosed

  • do all of the above

Question 48 of 67

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Which statement is TRUE? Fungal cell walls

Select one of the following:

  • resemble plant cell walls chemically but not structurally

  • resemble plant cell walls structurally but not chemically

  • resemble plant cell walls both chemically and structurally

  • do not resemble plant cell walls either chemically or structurally

Question 49 of 67

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Neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir are used to treat which type of infection?

Select one of the following:

  • fungal

  • bacterial

  • influenza virus

  • parasitic

Question 50 of 67

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Antimicrobial drugs are often grouped according to

Select one of the following:

  • molecular structure

  • mechanism of action

  • spectrum of antimicrobial activity

  • all of the above

Question 51 of 67

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The vegetative cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are resistant to many germicides because of

Select one of the following:

  • the waxy nature of the cell wall

  • an extra membranous layer between the cell wall and the plasma membrane

  • the complex nature of the plasma membrane itself

  • the lattice work found in the glycocalyx

Question 52 of 67

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The thermal death time is the

Select one of the following:

  • dose of radiation necessary for a tenfold reduction in the numbers of selected microorganisms or biological factors

  • time it takes to kill all cells at a given temperature

  • time required for a tenfold reduction in the population density at a given temperature

  • measure of the radiation energy output from a source

Question 53 of 67

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Cold sterilization is performed using

Select one of the following:

  • compounds such as ethylene oxide

  • high-pressure chambers

  • exceptionally low temperatures

  • dry ice

Question 54 of 67

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The time required for a tenfold reduction of the variability of a microbial population at a given temperature is called the ______ time.

Select one of the following:

  • temperature-dependent logarithmic death

  • decimal reduction

  • mean sterilization

  • thermal death

Question 55 of 67

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Whether an organism is classified as a photoheterotroph or a photoautotroph depends on its

Select one of the following:

  • oxygen requirements

  • carbon source

  • energy source

  • all of the above

Question 56 of 67

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Photosynthesis is most correctly defined as the

Select one of the following:

  • absorption of light energy to produce carbohydrates

  • conversion of light energy to chemical energy

  • conversion of carbohydrates into energy-yielding organic products

  • production of carbohydrates by a plant or plantlike organism

Question 57 of 67

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Oxygenic phototrophs use light to generate

Select one of the following:

  • NADPH

  • ATP

  • organic carbon

  • both ATP and NADPH

Question 58 of 67

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Due to the sensitivity of dinitrogenase reductase, nitrogen fixation is inhibited by

Select one of the following:

  • oxygen

  • carbon dioxide

  • hydrogen

  • ammonia

Question 59 of 67

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Difinitive proof of N2 fixation is obtained using

Select one of the following:

  • an isotope of nitrogen, 15N, as a tracer

  • spectrophotometry to measure the opacity of possible nitrogen-containing substances

  • electrophoresis to analyze the shifts in nitrogen content

  • gas chromatography to assay for nitrogen uptake

Question 60 of 67

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Plastocyanin is a

Select one of the following:

  • membrane-bound sac found in certain bacteria

  • blue-green bacterium known for its unusual photoreactive complex

  • copper-containing protein in photosystem II that donates electrons to photosystem I

  • photosynthetic pigment found in some bacteria

Question 61 of 67

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The path of electron flow in oxygenic phototrophs is referred to as the ______ scheme.

Select one of the following:

  • Q

  • S

  • Z

  • E

Question 62 of 67

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Decalcification of the tooth enamel due to production of high concentrations of organic acids in the mouth is known as

Select one of the following:

  • degenerative plaque

  • dental caries

  • microbial enamel decalcification

  • dental plaque

Question 63 of 67

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Pathogenicity is

Select one of the following:

  • the ability of the hose to inflict damage on the pathogen

  • the ability of the pathogen to inflict damage on the host

  • the ability of the host to resist damage by the pathogen

  • all of the above

Question 64 of 67

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Mucous membranes are frequently coated with a protective liquid called

Select one of the following:

  • mucus

  • epithelial fluid

  • membrane fluid

  • none of the above

Question 65 of 67

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Two organisms that both benefit from each other are in symbiotic relationship called

Select one of the following:

  • parasitism

  • ammensalism

  • mutualism

  • commensalism

Question 66 of 67

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A microbiome contains all

Select one of the following:

  • viable cells in a particular location

  • organisms present in and on the body

  • living organisms present on the skin

  • organisms within the digestive system

Question 67 of 67

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Compared with decontamination, disinfection is

Select one of the following:

  • less aggressive

  • equally aggressive

  • more aggressive

  • either more or less aggressive depending on the situation in question

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Microbiology Exam 2

Erma
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

BY320 Exam 2 multiple choice questions

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