Which of the following statements about fibrocartilaginous emboli is INCORRECT?
Clinical signs develop slowly over days to weeks
FCE mostly occurs in large breed dogs and rarely in cats
The condition is usually non-painful
Diagnosis is by exclusion of other possible causes of clinical signs
Surgery is of no benefit and only supportive medical therapy is indicated
Which of the following not a sign that the UMN is involved in a lesion?
Hyporeflexia or areflexia
Normal or hyperreflexia
Normal to increased muscle tone
Minimal muscle atrophy
Which of the following is not associated with a LMN lesion?
Increased muscle tone
Hyporeflexia or Areflexia
Potentially severe muscle atrophy
Markedly dilated bladder
A dog comes in with paralysis of all four limbs, which part of the neurological exam may be excluded?
Extensor carpi radialis flexor withdrawal reflex may be excluded due to the paralysis
Cranial tibial flexor withdrawal reflex may be excluded due to the paralysis
Perineal Reflex may be excluded due to the complete paralysis
Postural reactions may be excluded
None, all parts of the neurological exam must be performed for a full assessement
A lesion at C6-T2 would show which of the following?
LMN signs in one or both of the forelimbs and UMN signs in the hindlimbs and bladder
Normal innervation signs of both the upper and lower limbs
Normal innervation of forelimbs with UMN signs seen caudal to T2
LMN signs of all four limbs
UMN signs of all four limbs
A lesion between C1 and C5 would show which of the following?
Upper signs in all four limbs
Normal forelimbs and UMN signs in hindlimbs
Normal forelimbs and LMN signs in hindlimbs
LMN signs in forelimbs and UMN signs in hindlimbs
No abnormal UMN or LMN signs in any limbs
Which of the following is INCORRECT?
Peripheral nerve injury of one limb quickly resolves with no signs of previous injury.
Decreased reflexes of the affected limb are seen with peripheral nerve injury.
Glucocorticoids can be given to decrease inflammation at sight of injury
Amputation of a limb affected by peripheral nerve damage may still be the end result even with diligent owners.
LMN signs of affected limb are seen with peripheral nerve injuries
Which of the following is INCORRECT with regards to brachial plexus avulsion?
Brachial plexus avulsion can occur spontaneously without any history indicating a potential cause
Brachial plexus avulsion can include any or all nerve roots between C6 and T2 and may also involve the dorsal roots
Damage to nerve roots C8 and T1 leads to denervation of the extensors and flexors of the elbow and carpus
C6 and C7 damage leads to denervation of the extensors and flexors of the shoulder
Brachial plexus avulsion can result in Horner's syndrome.
Neuropraxia is defined as...?
A full degeneration of nerves with remnants of the myelin sheath remaining
A condition due to a loss of blood supply, pressure from the weight of an animal during anesthesia or a tourniquet.
Degeneration of axons but endoneurium and Schwann cells remain intact which allows axon regeneration at 1mm/day and return to function
Complete severance of a nerve and degeneration of the distal portion of Schwann cells
Which of the following is INCORRECT with regards to nerve root/peripheral nerve neoplasia?
A history of slowly progressive monoparesis with "root signs" is highly suggestive of neoplasia
Nerve sheath tumors can occur in any spinal or cranial nerve
Nerve sheath tumors only occur in the caudal cervical area and are associated with the brachial plexus
Advanced diagnostic techniques can be used to identify the site of the tumor but a definitive diagnosis is made using histopathology of samples collected during surgery.
Although surgical removal is the best available treatment for all tumors it can result in further loss of function.
Which of the following are CORRECT in regards to Fibrocartilaginous emboli (FCE)?
There are a variety of possible emboli including fat, septic-type, thrombi in cats with HCM etc although fibrocartilaginous emboli are the most common cause of spinal cord injuries.
The condition is uncommon in large breed dogs with Miniature Schnauzers being the most affected breed
FCEs are only seen as a congenital defect in the very young
FCEs are extremely painful to the patient and sedation may be necessary
The condition is rare in cats where it occurs in the C6-T2 region and associated with exercise.
Which of the following shows the steps to a neural evaluation in the correct order?
Observation of posture and gait, Palpation of muscular skeletal system, Evaluation of sensation, Evaluation of cranial nerves, Evaluation of spinal nerves, Evaluation of postural reactions
Observation of mental status, Palpation of muscular skeletal system, Evaluation of postural reactions, Evaluation of cranial nerves, Evaluation of spinal nerves, Evaluation of sensation
Observation of mental status, Palpation of muscular skeletal system, Evaluation of cranial nerves, Evaluation of postural reactions, Evaluation of spinal nerves, Evaluation of sensation
Observation of posture and gait, Palpation of muscular skeletal system, Evaluation of sensation, Evaluation of postural reactions, Evaluation of cranial nerves, Evaluation of spinal nerves
Evaluation of mental status based lesion of the thalamocortex is best obtained from:
Patient Physical exam
Patient Neural exam
Research and experimental information
Which of the following is mismatched?
Perineal Reflex : Perineal nerve
Patellar Reflex : Femoral nerve
Cranial Tibial Reflex : Sciatic nerve
Flexor Withdrawal Reflex : Femoral and Sciatic nerves
Flexor Withdrawal Reflex : Musculocutaneous, Median, and Ulnar nerves
What is the other spinal reflex that is usually tested for that was not named in the previous question?
Extensor Carpi Radialis Reflex
A five month old male neutered stegosaurus is brought into your clinic. The client complains his pet took a tumble down the stairs and hasn't been acting right since. Upon examination, you find the animal is very aware of you and its surroundings. You don't even have to touch the hind limbs to instigate a reflex from them, but the reflexes on the front limbs are very small if even present. While palpating on a physical exam, you squeeze the abdomen and some urine comes shooting out. Where is the lesion located?
Not enough information has been given
S3 and caudally
Which of the following animals is least likely to get Vegetative Endocarditis?
3 year old male Boxer
4 year old female GSD
7 year old male Irish Wolf Hound
10 year old male DSH
Which of the following is a way to treat vegetative endocardiosis?
Digoxin + Mexilitene
Beta blockers + hypertonic fluid therapy
high long doses of bactericidal antibiotics
overdose of barbituates/euthanol
The signs of Glomerulonephritis and Proteinuria in Heartworm Disease is most likely caused by:
released growth factors by damaged vessel walls
Which of the following is not an effect of combing an Ivermectin prophylaxis with Doxycycline?
reduces lung pathology
strengthens reachback effect
lowers the reduction rate in worms when combined with Melarsomine
all of the above
A werewolf comes into your practice complaining of being short of breath, especially when exercising (he can talk because, you know, he’s a werewolf). During your history taking you ask if he’s been taking his heartworm preventative. He gives a long pause before saying “yes” while not making eye contact with you. You decide to administer a concentration test, which comes up negative, and an antibody test, which comes up positive. WTF is going?
The concentration test gave a false negative because this could be an occult infection.
The antibody test gave a false positive and this could be allergies.
There are no microfilaria or worms but the antibody test came up positive because he could have received adulticide treatment less than 24 weeks ago.
All of the above are possibilities
Which of the following is not matched correctly to its definition?
Neuropraxia – nerve damage caused by a lack of blood supply, mild
Axonotmesis – nerve damage but the cell bodies are still active and can regrow
Neurotmesis – nerve damage that is permanent because the axon is completely severed and separated from the cell body and schwanns
All of the above are correct
A Saber Tooth Tiger comes into your practice hunched and with its back legs positioned with the whole hock to the ground. What is this?
Radial nerve paralysis
What is the number one concern of paralysis of a limb?
Lion-O, leader of the Thunder Cats!, comes into your office. His left eye is enophthalmotic, mitotic, ptotic, and the third eye lid is prolapsed. Where could his lesion be?
Both Oculomotor Nerve and T1
Both Oculomotor nerve and Trigeminal nerve
A wiener dog presenting with front limb monoparesis, atrophy of the supraspinous muscle, and hyperpathia on palpation of its left front limb. On a myelogram, you see a golf-tee sign. What is the best course of treatment for this disease?
A 7 year-old cat is presented with miosis, ptosis, enophthalmos, and protruded nictitating membrane involving the right eye.
These symptoms are caused by damage to which one of the following innervation pathways?
Right sympathetic innervation to the eye
Right parasympathetic innervation to the eye
Left oculomotor innervation to the eye
Right trigeminal innervation to the eye
Left vagal innervation to the eye