In survey research, the percentage of persons in the general population that fit the qualifications to be sampled is the incidence rate.
In a Basic Experimental Design, the research designer would be manipulating only one independent variable.
For a self-administered questionnaire in survey research, the field worker and the respondent are in face-to-face contact.
If the type of behavior in question occurs infrequently, observation research would be preferable to survey research.
Which of the following is not a precondition to demonstrate causation?
isolation of the effect variable (indicate transfer relationship)
predictable statistical relationship between two variables (show concomitant variation)
appropriate time order of occurrence (correct temporal sequence)
elimination of other possible causal factors (avoid spurious association)
Physiological measurement devices are a(an) _______________ observation research format.
In survey research, mistakes made in the transfer of a respondent's answers from the completed questionnaire to a SPSS data file is:
data processing error
non response bias
A researcher records on blank note cards the waiting time of customers in a checkout line at a grocery store. This is an example of:
All of the following are a type of personal interview, except:
executive (or office)
door-to-door (or in-home)
A marketing research firm conducts a test market to assess the attractiveness of packaging colors for a snack foods product by having subjects view proposed packaging designs on a computer screen. This is an example of a:
controlled test market
field test market
standard test market
simulated test market
In a Factorial Experimental Design, the research designer would be manipulating more than one independent variable.
In survey research, the percentage of persons in the general population that fit the qualifications to be sampled is the response rate.
For an electronic communication survey, the field worker and the respondent are in face-to-face contact.
If the type of behavior of interest to a researcher occurs infrequently, survey research would be preferable to observation research.
When a researcher tries to say that the results of a test market in Indianapolis will hold in a national rollout of a new product, this researcher is concerned with:
the repeated measures effect
Content analysis is a (an) ______________ observation research format.
human or personal
mechanical or electrical
A field worker wearing a baseball cap with the name of the research client's store during the survey would most likely result in:
Conducting a survey in a high pedestrian traffic location is a:
traffic counter survey
mail panel survey
Which of the following is not a dimension along which approaches to observation vary?
direct vs. contrived
visible vs. hidden
rigid vs. flexible
human vs. mechanical
A marketing research firm conducts a test market for a household laundry detergent product at all mass-merchandiser stores in Louisville and its suburbs. This is an example of a:
demographic test market
Laboratory experiments tend to have less internal validity than field experiments.
In survey research, the percentage of total attempted interviews that are successfully completed is the response rate.
A person selected to participate in an ad hoc mail survey would receive several questionnaires over the time period of this particular research study.
In order for observation research to take place, the needed information must be observable.
The question as to whether the independent variable was the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable is the basic issue in:
a repeated measures study
a matching study
A mystery shopper is a (an) _______________ observation research format.
A field worker accidentally omits a question on a questionnaire that asks a respondent for his/her home Zip Code and makes-up answers before turning in the questionnaires. This situation is an example of:
sample selection error
Which of the following is a contrived situation for observation research?
getting subjects to participate in a simulated store situation so that their behavior can be observed
when the subject has no knowledge that he/she is being observed
the observer plays no part in the behavior of interest
the observer uses a pre-printed observation research form to record the subject's behavior
Which of the following is not a type of electronic communications survey method?
computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)
computerized voice-activated telephone interview
Which of the following is a limitation of using a test market?
test markets are more expensive relative to descriptive research studies
the potential for loss of secrecy while the test market is underway
conducting a test market normally requires more time than conducting a survey
All of the above are limitations of a test market
Laboratory experiments tend to have less external validity than field experiments.
In survey research, the percentage of total attempted interviews that are successfully completed is the incidence rate.
An internet (web) survey in which the research designer specifically selects potential respondents is a recruited survey.
An advantage of observation research is that it captures what people say they do as opposed to their actual behaviors.
Which term refers to an experimental design element that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis?
Scanner-based research is a (an) _____________ observation research format.
In answering a question on a questionnaire, the respondent accidentally provides an incorrect answer. This situation is an example of:
Compared to a natural observation research situation, a contrived observation research situation would not:
allow the researcher to collect data faster
allow for more control over things that might distort the behavior being studied
result in lower project costs
provide a more realistic environment in which to observe the behavior of interest
The interviewer would be in voice contact with the respondent in a (an):
computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)
computer assisted personal interview (CAPI)
test markets are less expensive relative to descriptive research studies
conducting a test market normally requires less time than conducting a survey
The conceptual definition is a verbal explanation of what a concept is and what it is not
Measuring only once characteristic of a retailer's customer service would be an example of the use of an uni-dimensional measurement scale.
An advantage of a multiple choice (or multi-item or determinant-choice) question is the lack of limitations on the respondent's answers.
The ability of a measurement scale to provide consistent results over time is referred to as its:
A marketing research firm needs to obtain information from past customers of a fitness center. What type of question should be used to determine if a potential respondent meets this requirement?
skip pattern question
A nominal level scale has which of the following scaling properties?
order and assignment, but no origin and distance
order, assignment, origin, and distance
order, assignment, and origin, but not distance
The following question and provided answer choices are an example of what type of scale?...
The quality of the customer service that you received today at Joe's Pizza Restaurant was: (please circle one choice)
excellent________very good_________good___________very poor
non-forced choice scale
Using an ordinal scale for the provided answer choices to a question on a questionnaire allows the researcher to calculate the _________ for the obtained data.
mode but no other measures of central tendency
mode and median
mode, median, and mean
mode and standard deviation
The following is an example of what type of question?
The quality of the pizza at Joe's Pizza, three-time winner of the "Best of Bloomington Pizza" award, is:__________ Excellent ____________Good
semantic differential question
What type of scale is the following?
Please circle the service characteristic on each line that is most important to you when making a purchase on an online retailer's website.
order shipped correctly - order arrived when promised
order arrived when promised - convenient merchandise return
convenient merchandise return - order shipped correctly
paired comparison scale
constant sum scale
A rule is a guide, method, or command that tells a researcher what to do in measuring an object.
Measuring five characteristics of a restaurant's delivery service quality would be an example of the use of a multi-dimensional measurement scale.
A disadvantage of a multiple choice (or multi-item or determinant-choice) question is the limitations on the respondent's answers.
The ability of a scale to measure what was intended to be measured is referred to as its:
A few questions on a questionnaire will not apply to students under the age of 21 while a few other questions will only apply to students 21 years old or older. The majority of questions on the questionnaire are applicable to all students. What type of question should be used in this situation by the research designer.
neutral category question
An interval scale has which of the following scaling properties?
order and assignment, but not origin and distance
order, assignment, and distance, but not origin
The following question and provided answer choices are an example of what type of scale?
The quality of the dessert that you had after dinner today was: (please circle one)
excellent - good - fair - poor - very poor
Using a nominal scale for the provided answer choices to a question on a questionnaire allows the researcher to calculate the ______ for the obtained data.
What is wrong with the following question and provided answer choices on a questionnaire?
What was your annual household income for 2014?
_________ less than 30k
_________ 30k - 40k
_________ 50k - 60k
_________ more than 60k
the response categories are not exhaustive.
the response categories are not mutually exclusive
it is a double-barreled question
All of the above are errors in this question
Please divide 100 points between each of these service characteristics based on their importance to you in ordering from an online retailer.
__________ order shipped correctly
__________ order arrived when promised
__________ convenient merchandise return
The operational definition specifies the methods to be used in measuring a concept.
Measuring five characteristics of a retailer's customer service would be an example of the use of a uni-dimensional measurement scale.
Questions in which the respondent can reply in his/her own words are open-ended response questions.
The reliability of a measurement scale refers to its:
skip pattern sequence
A marketing research firm needs to obtain information from current customers of a casual dining food restaurant. What type of question should be used to determine if a potential respondent meets this requirement?
A scale which can only name or identify persons, objects, or events, but has no other measurement capabilities is a (an):
ratio level scale
ordinal level scale
nominal level scale
interval level scale
A respondent asked to assign each of the IU campus libraries to one of the following four groups - totally awesome, awesome, somewhat awesome, and not worth my time. This is an example of a:
Using a ratio scale for the provided answer choices to a question on a questionnaire allows the researcher to calculate the ________ for the obtained data.
mode and median but no other measures of central tendency
mean, median, variance, and standard deviation
median and mean, but not the mode and standard deviation
What is wrong with the following question and provided answer choices on a questionnaire?
How much money did you have in your personal savings account on January 31, 2015?
_____ less than 10k
______ 10k - 20k
______ 20k - 30k
______ more than 30k
the response categories are not exhaustive
Which of the following is an example of a category scale?
All of the above are correct
A verbal explanation of what a concept is and what it is not is called a criterion definition.
An ordinal scale is the simplest level of measurement scale.
The unit of analysis for a questionnaire is the respondent.
Measurement is a process by which numbers can be assigned in a precise manner to a person following specific rules to represent quantities of attributes of the person.
A marketing research firm needs to obtain information from parents of university students. What type of question should be used to determine if a potential respondent meets this requirement?
As discussed in this course, the distinction between an interval level scale and a ratio level scale involves which scaling property?
What type of scale is this?
The ease of the navigation on the YourTexts4Less.com web site is: (please circle one)
very very good - very good - good - poor - very poor - very very poor
behavioral intent scale
Which of the following is an advantage of an open-ended response question?
the ability to easily obtain simple information
the ease of coding the responses for future analysis
the lack of limitations on the respondent's answers
Both (a.) and (b.) are correct
The following is an example of what type of question?
Please mark which of the following news websites you viewed yesterday.
_____cnn.com ________foxnews.com ______idsnews.com ________msnbc.com
What type of scale is the following?
Please circle the number that best represents how happy or unhappy you are with CampusClothingOnline.com's merchandise return process.
In a Factorial Experimental Design you are able to measure interaction effects of independent variables.
When you use two or more Survey Research Methods in a coordinated effort... you are using a _______.
mixed mode survey
What conditions are necessary for the use of observation research?
needed information must be observable
behavior of interest must be repetitive, frequent, or predictable
for human observation formats, the behavior of interest must be of relatively short duration
All of the above are correct.
Interviewer cheating is an error due to the interviewer falsifying entire interview, or parts of it.
This type of error is due to interviewer’s mistake in recording the respondent’s answer...
sample selection error
This type of error is due to incorrect selection of population elements for the sample...
Administrative error is an error caused by the improper administration or execution of the research task.
This type of error is due to the respondent offering “researcher’s expected” response...
social desirability bias
This type of error is due to the interviewer’s influencing of respondent’s answers...
This type of error is due to the respondent selecting endpoint answers...
This type of error is due to the respondent selecting answers that other persons would view favorably...
Mystery Shoppers are a (an) ___________observation research format.
In-store observation is a (an) ___________observation research format.
Physical Trace or Artifacts are a (an) ___________observation research format.
Audit or Inventories are a (an) ___________observation research format.
Content Analysis is a (an) ___________observation research format.
What is the device that measures galvanic skin response, a measure of involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin?
Response latency is the amount of time it takes to make a choice between two alternatives, used as a measure of the strength of preference.
What is the name of a machine that allows one to measure what portions of the brain are active at a given time?
Magnetic Resonance Imagery Device
What term is used to denote a proportion of people who are exposed to an Internet ad who actually click on its hyperlink to enter its website?
Click Through Rate CTR
This type of validity is defined as the ability of a measure to correlate with other standard measures of similar constructs or established criteria.
This type of validity depends on internal consistency so that multiple measures converge on a single meaning.
This type of validity is the extent to which individual measure' content match the intended concept's definition.
face (content) validity
This type of validity exists when a measure reliably measures and truthfully represents a unique concept; it consists of several components including face validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity.
This type of validity represents how unique or distinct is a measure; a scale should not correlate too highly with a measure of a different construct.
Sampling Error arises because of inadequacies of the actual respondents to represent the population of interest
_________ error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the research....
Population parameter refers to some true value of a phenomenon within a population...
A persistent tendency for the results of a sample to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter...
A category of sample bias resulting from some respondent action such as lying or inaction such as not responding
Sample members who are not contacted or who refuse to cooperate in the research...
people who aren't diggin it
___________________________ is a screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in survey design
______________ is a survey method that requires the interviewer to travel to the respondent's location to drop off questionnaires that will be picked up later
drop off method
A cover letter is aletter that accompanies a questionnaire to induce the reader to complete and return the questionnaire...
This a description of what time of interviewing technique: telephone interviews conducted from a central location, allowing firms to hire a staff of professional interviewers and to supervise and control the quality of interviewing more effectively
central location interviewing
random digit dialing
Item Nonresponse is the failure of a respondent to provide an answer to a survey question
______________ bias that occurs because people who feel strongly about a subject are more likely to respond to survey questions than people who feel indifferent about it
These are potential respondents in the sense that they are members of the sampling frame but who don't receive the request to participate in the research...
These are questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint
open-ended response questions
simple dichotomy questions
A Simple Dichotomy question is a fixed-alternative question that requires the respondent to choose one of two alternatives
________________is a fixed-alternative question that asks for an answer about general frequency of occurence
multiple choice question
__________ is a fixed-alternative question that allows the respondent to provide multiple answers to a single question by checking off items
________ is a question that suggests a socially desirable answer or is emotionally charged
_________ is a question that suggests or implies certain answers... it directs the user to an answer
____________ is an introductory statement or preamble to a potentially embarrassing question that reduces a respondent's reluctance to answer by suggesting that certain behavior is not unusual
A Split Ballot technique is process of using two alternative phrasings of the same question for respective halves of a sample to elicit a more accurate total response than would a single phrasing
_______________ is a question that may induce bias because it covers two or more issues at once
Order Bias results when a particular sequencing of questions that affects the way a person responds or when the choices provided as answers favors one response over another
____________ is asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses
randomized response technique
___________________ involve(s) randomly assigning respondents to answer either the question of interest or a mundane and embarrassing question
randomized response techniques
_________ is a term referring to a respondent who stops answering questions before reaching the end of the survey
A Filter Question is a question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question
____________ is the term allocated to the process of directing respondents to alternative portions of the questionnaire based on their response to a filter question
heat map question
Several similar questions of the same format all arranged in a grid format are called a ____________________
multiple-grid (matrix table) question
______________ is a graphical question that tracks the part of an image or advertisement that most captures a respondent's attention
multiple grid (matrix table) question
_______________ software allows question answers to be inserted into later questions
_______________ is a tabulation of the results of a pretest to help determine whether the questionnaire will meet the objectives of the research
Back translation is the process of taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language
_________________ is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way
__________________ is the process of identifying scale devices that correspond to properties of a concept involved in a research process
Correspondence rules indicate the way that a certain value on a scale corresponds to a true value of a concept
___________ scales represent the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only
__________ are ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possess
Interval scales are scales that both have nominal and ordinal properties, but that also capture information about differences in quantities of a concept from one observation to the next
_________________ represent the highest form of measurement in that they have all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities; characterized by a meaningful absolute zero
Zero represents an absence of a concept
These measures take on only one of a finite number of values
This type of measures reflect the intensity of a concept by assigning values that can take on any value along a scale range
This type of measure assigns a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variables
A Summated Scale is a scale created by simply summing the response to each item making up the composite measure. The scores can be but do not have to be averaged by the number of items making up the composite scale
_______________ is an indicator of a measure's internal consistency
_______________ represents a measure's homogeneity or the extent to which each indicator of a concept converges on a common meaning
_________________is a method for assessing internal consistency by checking the results of one-half of a set of scaled items against the results from the other half
Mixed method mode
The most commonly applied estimate of a multiple item scale's reliability. It represents the average of all possible split-half reliabilities for a construct
An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world; composed of affective, cognitive, and behavioral components
______________________ is a measure of attitudes that consists of a series of bipolar rating scales with opposite terms on either end
Constant Sum Scale
____________________ is a model that constructs an attitude score based on the multiplicative sum of beliefs about an option times the evaluation of those belief characteristics
________________ is a measure of the amount of Internet postings that involve a specific name or term
Click Through Rate
_______________ are categorical variables included in the stat analysis of experimental data as a way of statistically controlling or accounting for variance due to that variable
___________ is a continous variable included in the statistical analysis as a way of statistically controlling for variance due to that variable
___________ is the experimental difference in a dependent variable means between the different levels of any single experimental variable
___________ is the differences in dependent variable means due to a specific combination of independent variables
Experiment treatment is the term referring to the way an experimental variable is manipulated
_____________ refers to a specific treatment combination associated with an experimental group
This occurs if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable
systematic or nonsampling error
An experimental _____________ means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variable
Demand effect occurs when demand characteristics actually affect the dependent variable
A ___________ is a device that controls the amount of time a subject is exposed to a visual image
Dumb galvo thing
______________ involves repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured
Between subjects design
In Between subjects design research subject receives only one treatment combination
_______________ is a validity test of an experimental manipulation to make sure that the manipulation does produce differences in the independent variable
____________ occurs when a change other than the experimetnal treatment occurs during the course of an experiment that affects the dependent variable
____________ refers to a change in the dependent variable that occurs because members of one experimental group experienced different historical situations than members of other experimental groups
_____________ occurs when some subjects withdraw from the experiment before is completed
Mortality Effect (Sample Attrition)
__________ is a nuisance that occurs when change in the wording of questions, a change in interviewers, or a change in other procedures causes a change in the dependent variable