What was Aristotle's book called?
A Treatise of Human Nature
What approach does Virtue Ethics take?
Tick the two types of virtues along with the correct number of virtues.
intelligent virtues (9)
intelligent virtues (12)
moral virtues (9)
moral virtues (12)
intelligent virtues (6)
moral virtues (6)
Tick the correct quote by Aristotle about learning from virtues.
"we learn by doing"
"good is good and that is the end of the matter"
"a general condition of fulfilment"
"self-control is essential"
Aristotle believed that we must practise virtues to the right amount in order to not commit vices. This is known as the Golden or Virtuous Mean.
There are two types of vices. Click the correct two as well as corresponding examples of the vice.
Vice of excess (practising too much courage leads to being rash)
Vice of deficiency (practising too little courage leads to being a coward)
Vice of less (practising too little courage leads to being afraid)
Vice of more (practising too much courage leads to arrogance)
Tick a quote from Bowie that explains why Aristotle believed in a Golden or Virtuous Mean.
"good is good and that is the end of that"
"can one desire too much of a good thing?"
"the right balance important"
It is important not to confuse eudaimonia with hedonism (pleasure) because eudiamonia is "the general condition of fulfilment" (Scruton's Modern Philosophy), not pleasure.
Tick the correct quote by Aristotle about purpose.
"whenever we do something, we do it to gain an end"
"it is human nature to have order"
Aristotle believes that eudaimonia is a subordinate aim and pleasure is a superior aim.
Aristotle believed that eudaimonia was an activity of the soul, since it used the complete soul. Vardy gives an example of a fruit cake to explain how the rational and irrational parts of the soul are being used to reach a final decision, just like eudaimonia.
Virtues influence our state of character and we become what we are by what we practise. So if we practise being virtuous, we become virtuous. Similarly, being a part of a perfect friendship makes us better people since perfect friendships encourage the bonding of communities and are virtuous.
Tick FOUR scholars that support Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.
What does Anscombe's 1958 article 'Modern Moral Philosophy' say about Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.
Modern philosophy is misguided and we need an ethical theory that is not based on actions or dependent on God. We must return to Aristotle's Virtue Ethics because it is a community-based approach to morality.
Morality has become too focused on emotions and we need a more community-based approach that is accessible to all, like Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics is sexist since it focuses on largely masculine virtues and thus it is not suitable for the modern world.
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics is like good parenting because it identifies strengths and weaknesses in our character, encouraging us to be better people.
What does MacIntyre's 'After Virtue' say about Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.
Morality has become too focused on emotions and we need a more community-based approach that is accessible to all, like Aristotle's Virtue Ethics. Virtues can also change and evolve over time and culture.
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics is still good since it is so old and reliable.
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics is a better alternative to action-based theories and a dependence on God.
MacIntrye likens Aristotle's Virtue Ethics to good parenting because it identifies strengths and weaknesses in our character as well as encouraging us to be better people.
Kennan compared Virtue Ethics to good parenting because it identifies strengths and weaknesses in our character whilst trying to make us better people.
Foot believes that virtues are beneficial because they make people better and thus the world becomes a better place. Foot attempted to modernise Aristotle's Virtue Ethics.
Tick three strengths of Virtue Ethics.
Virtue Ethics focuses on people and thus improves the quality of life, building better relationships and people.
Virtue Ethics is accessible to all since we all have the ability to practise virtues and since virtues are changeable, according to MacIntyre, this ethical theory adapts to any society.
Virtues can be manipulated to suit our own preferences.
MacIntrye: Virtue Ethics is more effective in making moral decisions because we control our emotions. Modern morality has become too much of an emotional shouting battle and virtues provide some perspective when make decisions, which is important.
Virtue Ethics is reliable because it is so old.
Tick three weaknesses of Virtue Ethics.
Warbuton: Virtues can be manipulated to suit our own pretences and this encourages selfishness. For example, a vegetarian might say not eating meat is a virtue or "A monogamist might declare fidelity to one sexual partner a virtue"
Louden: Virtue Ethics lacks clarity over how to practise virtues and the Golden Mean. For example, how do we apply the Golden Mean?
Virtue Ethics bonds communities yet our modern society is more isolated and doesn't want to bond.
Schaller: Virtue Ethics may be viewed as deontological because it involves duty, since Aristotle is telling us what virtues to practise. This contradicts Virtue Ethics' aretaic nature and questions its credibility.
Virtue Ethics is like good parenting because it is chaotic and confusing.