The study of death and dying.
True/False: Dying people benefit profoundly from social support in their last days/hours.
True/False: In reality, 80% of people die free of pain.
Death is the accumulation of a straightforward...
1 in 4 deaths are sudden. What % of these deaths are due to heart attacks?
Irregular heart rhythm caused by uncontrolled twitching of the heart (during heart attack).
Heart becomes scarred, no longer able to contract with the forces needed to deliver oxygen to tissues.
How long can a brain be oxygen-starved before it will suffer irreversible damage?
The spread of cancer to multiple organs.
Why do 3/4th of people die a long, drawn out death?
What 3 traits are exhibited by a person in the last days/hours before death?
What are the names of the 3 transition stages from life to death?
What occurs during the Agonal phase?
What is Clinical death?
What is Mortality?
True/False: Death is the result of the brain failing to function and occurs at a single point in time when the brain stops functioning.
Irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem.
True/False: Brain death is the standard measure for death and is used for organ donations even if the intention of the deceased is not clear, as long as family consents.
The cerebral cortex no longer registers electrical activity, but the brain stem remains active.
The greatest dignity in death is the integrity of the life that precedes death. How can we foster integrity in death?
What 4 ways can we provide dignity in death?
What is our culture's attitude towards death?
Our culture fosters an increase in death anxiety. What is death anxiety?
When and why does death anxiety decline?
Which of Erikson's psychosocial stages reduces death anxiety?
What is symbolic immortality?
True/False: People with a well-developed personal philosophy of death are more fearful of death.
True/False: Death anxiety can motivate one to live up to an internalized culture values (ie. be kinder to others).
Why do women appear to have more death anxiety than men?
What 2 aspects of cognition reduce death anxiety?
What are the 5 sections of Kübler-Ross's Theory (about the thoughts and emotions of dying people)?
Ross did not intend for these sections of the Kübler-Ross's Theory to be fixed sequence. The use of which word caused this misinterpretation?
How should the stages of Kübler-Ross's Theory be viewed?
What is Appropriate death?
What proportion of cancer patients experience severe depression? Why is this important?
True/False: In many nations in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East, terminally ill patients are seldom told the truth about their condition, since it disrupts important interdependent relationships.
What are the steps in a Hope Trajectory for a dying patient?
True/False: Terminally ill patients who score higher in spiritual well-being experience less end-of-life despair.
In the past, most deaths occurred at home. What is the percentage of deaths that take place in hospitals? In LTC facilities?
What percentage of people prefer to die at home? What percentage actually die at home?
True/False: Family members of people who die at home experience less psychological stress than family members of people who died elsewhere.
Why is there more a depersonalized experience for people dying in hospitals?
(From doctor's perspective)
What programs in hospitals aim to ease physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering at end-of-life?
What 2 things do patients in nursing homes report about their experience?
A comprehensive program of support services for terminally ill people and their families. Provides care community, so they can prepare for an appropriate death.
True/False: Hospices encompass at-home care and inpatient care options.
What are the main focuses of hospice care?
The practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition.
What is the difference between Passive and Active Euthanasia?
True/False: Passive euthanasia is widely practiced as part of ordinary medical procedure.
True/False: Majority of Catholics favour euthanasia while African American favour euthanasia less.
A written statement of desired medical treatment should they become incurably ill.
Living will is a type of AMD in which a patient had specified treatments they want or do not want. For which cases are living wills written?
Durable power of attorney for health care authorizes another person to make treatment decisions on their behalf. What is the main advantage of this over a Living Will?
What proportion of adults 65+ have an advance medical directive?
What is an important mean of covering children and adolescents who cannot legally execute advance medical directives?
What is the type of euthanasia in which the doctor acts directly to end a suffering patient's life at their request?
What percentage of people in Western nations approve of voluntary active euthanasia?
What is the difference between assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia?
What is the legal status of assisted suicide in Canada?
What proportion of patients say that they would consider assisted suicide in particular circumstances?
Public opinion favours assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia?
Why would the possibility of coercion be reduced in assisted suicide when compared to voluntary active euthanasia?
What is the type of euthanasia that occurs when the doctor ends a patient's life without their permission or consent?
Intense physical and psychological distress (grief) felt when we have lost a loved one.
Culturally specified expression of the bereaved person's thoughts and feelings.
(Aim is to help people cope with the grief)
What is the grieving process compared to?
What are the 4 necessary tasks of grief?
Avoidance of the reality of death results in shock, then disbelief. How long may this disbelief last?
What is the term used to describe the numbing feeling experienced as you accept the reality of your loss?
What stage of grieving involves reviewing the circumstances of death to find meaning in their death?
In what stage of grieving must a person deal with stressors that are secondary outcomes of death?
Effective coping requires people to oscillate between dealing with the emotional consequences of loss and attending to life changes, which have restorative or healing effects.
True/False: There is no set timeline for grieving, as it is different for everyone.
Why is there a much higher mortality rate in bereaved men than women?
Which results in more pronounced avoidance and highly traumatic confrontation: Sudden, unanticipated death or Prolonged, expected death?
In prolonged dying, the bereaved person has time to engage in what type of grieving that acknowledges loss as inevitable and prepares them emotionally for the loss?
True/False: People grieving a suicide are more likely to believe that they contributed or could have prevented it.
Parents experience the most difficult loss when who dies?
How should parents' reestablish a sense of life's meaning after their child's death?
Cognitive development allows for grieving, thus an immature understanding of death may cause the child of a deceased parent to think what about their parent's death?
What is the major difference in the grieving process between adolescents and younger children?
True/False: Older widows eventually fare well, while younger widows display more negative outcomes.
A sense of loss without the opportunity to mourn publicly and benefit from others' support.
Several deaths at once or in close succession, which causes depletion of coping resources, leaving you emotionally overwhelmed and unable to resolve your grief.
When is bereavement overload more likely to occur?
What are the 5 suggestion for resolving grief?
What type of interventions encourage people to draw on their existing social network, while providing additional social support through group or individual counselling?
In bereavement interventions, individually-tailored approach is best suited for which type of coping: Loss-oriented or Restoration-oriented?
In bereavement interventions, support groups are best suited for which type of coping: Loss-oriented or Restoration-oriented?
What percentage of people use bereavement interventions?
What are the goals of death education?
(4 main goals)
Which are better at decreasing death anxiety: educational programs or experimental programs?