Why does water have a high specific heat capacity and why is it useful?
Why is water's high latent heat of evaporation property useful?
Why is water a good solvent and why is this property useful?
Why is water's cohesive property useful?
Why does water become less dense as it freezes and why is this useful?
What are the functions of proteins?
How many types of naturally occurring amino acids are there?
What are essential amino acids and how many are there?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
What bonds hold together the tertiary structure of a protein?
Give examples of where the tertiary structure of a protein is important
Contrast the structures of haemoglobin and collagen
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Are carbohydrates soluble?
What are the disaccharide and polysaccharide of α glucose?
What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose at C1?
What are the similarities between starch and glycogen?
What are the differences between starch and glycogen?
What is the structure of cellulose?
What are the functions of lipids?
Are lipids soluble?
Describe the structure of fatty acids
What are the differences between a triglyceride and a phospholipid molecule?
Why do organisms in colder climates have more unsaturated fatty acids in their phospholipids?
What is the structure of a cholesterol molecule?
What is the function of cholesterol and how do its properties help this?
What are the effects of excess cholesterol in
a) the bile
b) the blood
What bonds are formed when building proteins, carbohydrates and lipids?
Describe how to test for reducing sugars
Describe how to test for non-reducing sugars
Describe how to test for lipids
Describe how to test for starch
Describe how to test for proteins
What are the monomers of nucleic acids and what is there structure?
What is the sugar molecule in DNA?
What are purines?
What are pyrimidines?
What are the base pairs?
How many hydrogen bonds are between A-T?
How many hydrogen bonds are between G-C?
What is the structure of a DNA molecule?
How does the structure of DNA relate to its function?
How is DNA replicated?
How does RNA differ from DNA?
What are the three forms of RNA?
Why does DNA have to be transcribed into mRNA?
What are the steps for protein synthesis?
Define a gene
What are enzymes?
What are extracellular enzymes?
What are intracellular enzymes?
How do enzymes affect activation energy?
What is the lock-and-key hypothesis?
What is the current hypothesis for enzyme action?
What happens, in general, to the rate of reaction when increasing the temperature?
What happens when the enzyme is heated to a temperature above its optimum temperature?
How does increasing the substrate concentration affect enzyme activity?
How does pH affect enzyme activity?
How does increasing the enzyme concentration?
What are competitive inhibitors?
What are non-competitive inhibitors?
Describe the action of a named poison
How are enzymes used in ethylene glycol poisoning?
How are enzymes inhibitors used to treat HIV?
How are inhibitors used to kill microorganisms such as bacteria?
What is the turnover number of an enzyme?
What are inborn errors of metabolism?
How are the metabolic sequences controlled?
Define a balanced diet
Why is good nutrition required?
What are the components of a balanced diet?
What is malnutrition and what is an example?
What diseases can be caused by obesity?
What factors in the diet can lead to CHD?
What are lipoproteins made of?
What are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)?
What are low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)?
How can the diet be made healthier, in relation to cholesterol?
What is selective breeding?
What is the process of selective breeding?
What traits are selected for plants?
What traits are selected for animals?
How can chemicals boost food production?
What are some examples of the use of microorganisms to make food?
What methods are used to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms?
What are the advantages of using microorganisms in food production?
What are the disadvantages of using microorganisms in food production?
Define a pathogen
What are the 4 types of pathogens?
How do bacteria cause disease?
How do fungi cause disease?
How do viruses causes disease?
How do protoctista cause disease?
What are some common forms of transmission of disease?
By which method of transmission is malaria spread by?
What is the cycle of malaria parasites from an infected host?
Apart from the female Anopheles mosquito, how else is the malarial parasite spread?
What is the global impact of malaria?
What do HIV and AIDS stand for?
What are the steps of HIV?
How is HIV transmitted?
What is the global impact of HIV/AIDS?
What is tuberculosis caused by and how is it transmitted?
What is the global impact of TB?
What are primary defences and what are some examples?
What are the two types of phagocytes?
Describe the process of phagocytosis
What are antigens?
What are antibodies?
What are antibodies produced by?
What is another name for antibodies?
What is the structure of an antibody?
How do antibodies work?
Define immune response
How does the secondary response compare to the primary response?
Where are B lymphocytes made?
Where are T lymphocytes made and where do they mature?
What can T lymphocytes differentiate into?
What can B cells differentiate into?
What are the steps in a specific immune response to a pathogen?
What is a vaccination?
What are vaccinations made of?
What is herd immunity?
What is natural immunity?
What is artificial immunity?
What is active immunity?
What is passive immunity?
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of active and passive immunity
Give an example of natural active immunity?
Give an example of natural passive immunity
Give an example of artificial active immunity
Give an example of artificial passive immunity
How does smoking affect the cardiovascular system?
What is atherosclerosis?
What substances are found in atheromas?
How does smoking cause atherosclerosis?
What is CHD?
How does smoking cause CHD?
What is a stroke?
How does smoking cause stroke?