What is involved in distinguishing between dangerous and non dangerous pathogens?
What is a PAMP?
Pathogen association membrane proteins
Protein assisted molecular pathway
Pathogen associated molecular patterns
Pathogen antigen model patterns
What does a PRR do?
Transport proteins around the cell
Produces cytokines directly
Affects gene transcription
Recognises pathogen patterns
Starts a signalling pathway
Which of the following is incorrect about PAMPS
Flagellin is the PAMP for flagellated bacteria
Lipolysaccharides is the PAMP for Gram -ve bacteria
Peptidoglycan is also a PAMP for Gram -ve bacteria
Zymosan is the PAMP for fungi
ssRNA a PAMP for viral infection
What makes an ideal PAMP?
Something heavy in lipids
Something that is fundemental to the cells function
Why must we have a signal for pathogen vs self as well as for dangerous vs non dangerous?
Because if we react to self antigen our immune system attacks our own bodies
Because many of the organisms in our body are commensals and killing them could lead to opportunistic infections
Because two signals allow are more controlled reaction
So that if you get one signal and not the other only a small or no response occurs. Minimises damage.
Which are incorrect?
C-type lectin receptors detect fungal antigen
RIG-1 like Receptors recognise protozoan antigen
Toll like receptors recognise bacterial antigen
NOD- like receptors recognise only bacterial antigen
What receptors recognise Candida? and what does it lead to?
Dectin-1 Th17 adaptive immune response
Dectin-2 Th17 adaptive immune response
Mannose receptors Th17 adaptive immune response
What does mincle recognise?
Malassezia spp and trehalose dimycolate from M.tuberculosis.
Clostridium spp C.difficile, C.tetani and C.botulinum
What is the outcome of TLR signalling?
T cell stimulating cytokines
Anti inflammatory cytokines
Which is incorrect?
RLRs signal outcomes are inflammatory cytokines esp IFNs
CLRs Signal outcomes are Tcell stimulating cytokines esp IL-17
NLRs signal outcomes are Inflammatory cytokines IL-2
Where do you find NOD like receptors?
In a vesicle
In the cytosol
In the membrane
In the lymph node
Which is correct?
NOD1 recognises G -ve bacteria
NOD2 recognises all bacteria
NOD proteins recognise danger and viruses
There is more NOD in epithelial cells
NOD is also in APCs
NOD2 recognises only gram +ve bacteria
NOD1 recognises fungi
Nod proteins recognise danger and protozoa
Which of these are acute inflammatory cytokines?
IL-1, IL-7, IL-17
IL-1, IL-8, IL-18
IL-1, IL-2, IL17
IL-1, TFNbeta, IL-3
What is the role of NFKB?
To compete for binding of CD28 with CD80.
A link between PRR and transcription.
A mediator of acute inflammation
A anti inflammatory cytokine
What type of inflammasome responds to all bacterial stimuli and is the one we learnt?
What is a danger signal?
A signal from a co-stimulatory receptor that is only expressed when in danger
A signal that indicates cell death e.g. crystal salts.
What are these proteins part of? Cardinal, Asc and caspase?
Why is the inflammasome a target for medicine?
Because many auto-immune disease involve excessive inflammation
Because it causes poor immune response
What are adjuvants?
Killed pathogens used in vaccines.
Agents that boost the immune response by acting as danger signals
What is gout?
An auto immune disease?
The build up of uric acid crystals
Excessive inflammation due to signal 2 being activated
IL-1Ralpha used as an antagonist to treat
What is the name of this disorder? IL-1 and IL-18 are produced, mice with this deficiency for NLRP3 have poor inflammasome development. IL-18 is used in gut function to mediate gut repair
Inflammatory bowl disease
What is an antigen?
Something a Tcells and Bcell receptors recognise
Broken down macromolecules specific to foreign organisms
Something that directly stimulates Tcells to become different subsets
Something that indicates self antigen
What is an immunogen and an epitote?
Immunogen - antigen that initiates immune system
Epitote - part of the antigen that binds to TCR/BCR
Immunogen - part of the antigen that binds to TCR/BCR
Epitote - antigen that initiates immune system
How many genes does the human genome have?
How many different Tcell and Bcell receptors do we have as humans?