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Question 1 of 75

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A 52-year-old female is admitted to the cardiac unit with a diagnosis of pericarditis. She asks the nurse to explain where the infection is. In providing an accurate description, the nurse states that the pericardium is:

Select one of the following:

  • The innermost layer of the heart chambers

  • The outer muscular layer of the heart

  • The heart's fibrous skeleton

  • A membranous sac that encloses the heart

Question 2 of 75

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A 50-year-old female received trauma to the chest that caused severe impairment of the primary pacemaker cells of the heart. Which of the following areas received the greatest damage?

Select one of the following:

  • Atrioventricular (AV) node

  • Sinoatrial (SA) node

  • Bundle of His

  • Ventricles

Question 3 of 75

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A cardiologist is teaching about the period that follows depolarization of the myocardium and represents a period during which no new cardiac potential can be propagated. What is the cardiologist describing?

Select one of the following:

  • Absolute refractory

  • Threshold

  • Hyperpolarization

  • Resting

Question 4 of 75

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The _____ represents the sum of all ventricular muscle cell depolarization.

Select one of the following:

  • QRS Complex

  • PR Interval

  • QT Interval

  • P Wave

Question 5 of 75

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A 65-year-old male develops blockage in the pulmonary artery. As a result of the blockage, blood would first back up into the:

Select one of the following:

  • Right Ventricle

  • Pulmonary Veins

  • Aorta

  • Left Ventricle

Question 6 of 75

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Which principle should the nurse remember when planning nursing care for a patient with heart problems? As stated by the Frank- Starling law, there is a direct relationship between the _____ of the blood in the heart at the end of diastole and the _____ of contraction during the next systole.

Select one of the following:

  • Viscosity, Duration

  • Viscosity, Force

  • Pressure, Duration

  • Volume, Force

Question 7 of 75

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While planning care for a heart patient, which principle should the nurse recall? Right ventricular afterload is affected by:

Select one of the following:

  • Vascular Resistance in the Systemic Vessels

  • Pressures in the Vena Cava

  • Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

  • Right end-diastolic pressure

Question 8 of 75

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A nurse observes a cardiologist multiplying the heart rate by stroke volume. What is the cardiologist measuring?

Select one of the following:

  • Cardiac Output

  • Preload

  • Vascular Resistance

  • Ejection Fraction

Question 9 of 75

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A nurse is teaching about the heart. Which information should the nurse include? The chamber of the heart that generates the highest pressure is the:

Select one of the following:

  • Left Atrium

  • Right Ventricle

  • Left Ventricle

  • Right Atrium

Question 10 of 75

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A patient researches baroreceptors online. Which information indicates a good understanding? Baroreceptors are located in the:

Select one of the following:

  • Carotid Sinus

  • Circle of Willis

  • Superior Vena Cava

  • Renal Artery

Question 11 of 75

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A nurse is evaluating the direct end effect of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Which principle should the nurse remember?

Select one of the following:

  • Aldosterone Increases renal retention of water only

  • Angiotensin II causes systemic vasoconstriction.

  • Renin promotes the excretion of sodium and water in the renal tubules.

  • Angiotensin I promotes sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys.

Question 12 of 75

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When a patient wants to know about the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, what is the nurse’s best response? Conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II happens in the:

Select one of the following:

  • Heart

  • Liver

  • Kidneys

  • Lungs

Question 13 of 75

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Which statement indicates the nurse understands blood flow? Oxygenated blood flows through the:

Select one of the following:

  • Pulmonary Artery

  • Pulmonary Veins

  • Cardiac Veins

  • Superior Vena Cava

Question 14 of 75

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A 60-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting chest pain. He is diagnosed with atherosclerosis. This disease is caused by:

Select one of the following:

  • Arterial wall thinning and weakening

  • Autonomic nervous system imbalances

  • Abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls

  • Abnormally dilated arteries and veins

Question 15 of 75

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When a nurse checks the patient for orthostatic hypotension, what did the nurse have the patient do?

Select one of the following:

  • Lie Down

  • Eat

  • Physical Exertion

  • Stand up

Question 16 of 75

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What term should the nurse document for a detached blood clot?

Select one of the following:

  • Embolus

  • Thromboembolus

  • Thrombus

  • Infarction

Question 17 of 75

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A 32-year-old female presents with lower leg pain, with swelling and redness. While obtaining the patient’s history, which finding could have caused her condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Venous Thrombus

  • Heart Valve Damage

  • Atherosclerosis

  • Bacterial Infection

Question 18 of 75

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A 28-year-old female presents with severe chest pain and shortness of breath. She is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, which most likely originated from the:

Select one of the following:

  • Left Ventricle

  • Systemic Arteries

  • Deep Veins of the leg

  • Superficial veins of the arm

Question 19 of 75

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Individuals with Raynaud disease need to be counseled to avoid which of the following conditions to prevent severe symptoms?

Select one of the following:

  • Allergic Reactions

  • Hot Water Immersion

  • Tissue Injury

  • Cold Exposure

Question 20 of 75

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A 75-year-old obese female presents to her primary care provider reporting edema in the lower extremities. Physical exam reveals that she has varicose veins. Upon performing the history, which of the following is a possible cause for the varicose veins?

Select one of the following:

  • Extreme Exercise

  • Long Periods of Standing

  • Ischemia

  • Trauma to the deep veins

Question 21 of 75

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While planning care for a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), which principle should the nurse remember? SVCS is a progressive _____ of the superior vena cava (SVC) that leads to venous distention of the upper extremities and head.

Select one of the following:

  • Distention

  • Sclerosis

  • Occlusion

  • Inflammation

Question 22 of 75

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A 56-year-old male is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Which of the following modifiable risk factors would the nurse suggest the patient change?

Select one of the following:

  • Smoking cigarettes

  • Eating Meat

  • Drinking Tomato Juice

  • Living Arrangements

Question 23 of 75

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When a patient asks the nurse what is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia, which statement is the correct response? The most common cause of myocardial ischemia is:

Select one of the following:

  • Venous emboli

  • Idiopathic vasospasm

  • Arterial emboli from heart valve

  • Atherosclerosis

Question 24 of 75

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A 51-year-old male presents with recurrent chest pain on exertion. He is diagnosed with angina pectoris. When he asks what causes the pain, how should the nurse respond? The pain occurs when:

Select one of the following:

  • Cardiac output has fallen below normal levels.

  • The myocardial oxygen supply has fallen below demand.

  • The vagus nerve is stimulated.

  • Myocardial stretch has exceeded the upper limits.

Question 25 of 75

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A 51-year-old male is at the health clinic for an annual physical exam. After walking from the car to the clinic, he developed substernal pain. He also reported discomfort in his left shoulder and his jaw, lasting 2 to 3 minutes and then subsiding with rest. He indicates that this has occurred frequently over the past few months with similar exertion. The nurse suspects he is most likely experiencing:

Select one of the following:

  • Myocardial Infarction

  • Prinzmetal Angina

  • Unstable Angina

  • Stable Angina

Question 26 of 75

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A 49-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting chest pain. EKG reveals ST elevation. He is diagnosed with myocardial ischemia. Which of the following interventions would be most beneficial?

Select one of the following:

  • Encourage exercise to increase heart rate.

  • Administer a diuretic to decrease volume.

  • Apply oxygen to increase myocardial oxygen supply.

  • Give an antibiotic to decrease infection.

Question 27 of 75

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A 60-year-old female had a myocardial infarction. She was brought to the hospital 30 minutes later. She survived, but now the nurse is providing care for impaired ventricular function because:

Select one of the following:

  • There is too much stress on the heart.

  • The cells become hypertrophic.

  • There is a temporary alteration in electrolyte balance.

  • The resulting ischemia leads to hypoxic injury and myocardial cell death.

Question 28 of 75

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While planning care, the nurse remembers which principle? In valvular _____, the valve opening is constricted and narrowed because the valve leaflets, or cusps, fail to open completely.

Select one of the following:

  • Incompetence

  • Regurgitation

  • Stenosis

  • Insufficiency

Question 29 of 75

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A 60-year-old female was diagnosed with mitral stenosis. As a result, the nurse realizes the patient has incomplete emptying of the:

Select one of the following:

  • Left Atrium

  • Right Ventricle

  • Right Atrium

  • Left Ventricle

Question 30 of 75

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A 72-year-old female has a history of hypertension and atherosclerosis. An echocardiogram reveals backflow of blood into the left ventricle. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis documented on the chart?

Select one of the following:

  • Aortic stenosis

  • Mitral regurgitation

  • Mitral stenosis

  • Aortic regurgitation

Question 31 of 75

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Most cases of combined systolic and diastolic hypertension have no known cause and are documented on the chart as _____ hypertension.

Select one of the following:

  • Congenital

  • Acquired

  • Primary

  • Secondary

Question 32 of 75

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Which characteristic changes should the nurse keep in mind while caring for a patient with left heart failure? As left heart failure progresses:

Select one of the following:

  • Left end-diastolic volume decreases.

  • Systemic vascular resistance decreases.

  • Left ventricular preload increases.

  • Pulmonary vascular resistance decreases.

Question 33 of 75

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A 65-year-old male with a history of untreated hypertension is now experiencing left heart failure. A nurse recalls his untreated hypertension led to:

Select one of the following:

  • Alterations in alpha and beta receptor function

  • Ventricular dilation and wall thinning

  • Inhibition of renin and aldosterone

  • Myocardial hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling

Question 34 of 75

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A 59-year-old female is diagnosed with left ventricular failure. If a decrease in kidney perfusion occurs, the nurse knows this would ultimately cause:

Select one of the following:

  • Decreased cardiac oxygen demand

  • Increased pulmonary capillary permeability

  • Increased systemic vascular resistance

  • Decreased left ventricular preload

Question 35 of 75

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When a patient with left heart failure starts to have a cough and dyspnea, which principle should the nurse remember? Pulmonary symptoms, common to left heart failure, are a result of:

Select one of the following:

  • Pulmonary vascular congestion

  • Inflammatory pulmonary edema

  • Decreased cardiac output

  • Bronchoconstriction

Question 36 of 75

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A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures should the nurse assess for in this patient?

Select one of the following:

  • Left heart failure

  • Right heart failure

  • Low-output failure

  • High-output failure

Question 37 of 75

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When a person is in shock, a nurse remembers impairment in cellular metabolism is cause by:

Select one of the following:

  • Free radical formation

  • Lack of nervous or endocrine stimulation

  • Release of toxic substances

  • Inadequate tissue perfusion

Question 38 of 75

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One consequence of switching from aerobic to anaerobic cellular metabolism during shock states is:

Select one of the following:

  • Decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production

  • Cellular dehydration

  • Free radical formation

  • Cellular alkalosis

Question 39 of 75

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A 27-year-old male is admitted to a neurologic unit with a complete C-5 spinal cord transection. On initial assessment, he is bradycardic, hypotensive, and hyperventilating. He appears to be going into shock. The most likely mechanism of his shock is:

Select one of the following:

  • Hypovolemia caused by evaporative fluid losses

  • Hypovolemia caused by blood loss

  • Vasodilation caused by a decrease in sympathetic stimulation

  • Vasodilation caused by gram-negative bacterial infection

Question 40 of 75

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A 15-year-old male who is allergic to peanuts eats a peanut butter cup. He then goes into anaphylactic shock. Which assessment findings will the nurse assess for?

Select one of the following:

  • Bradycardia, decreased arterial pressure, and oliguria

  • Bronchoconstriction, hives or edema, and hypotension

  • Hypertension, anxiety, and tachycardia

  • Fever, hypotension, and erythematous rash

Question 41 of 75

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For an infection to progress to septic shock, which of the following factors should the nurse determine occurred?

Select one of the following:

  • The individual must be immunosuppressed.

  • Bacteria must enter the bloodstream.

  • The myocardium must be impaired.

  • The infection must be gram negative.

Question 42 of 75

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Which patient is most prone to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)? In a patient with:

Select one of the following:

  • Pulmonary disease

  • Septic shock

  • Myocardial infarction (MI)

  • Autoimmune disease

Question 43 of 75

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Which is the most common type of congenital heart defect the nurse should assess for in infants?

Select one of the following:

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  • Atrioventricular canal defect

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  • Tetralogy of Fallot

Question 44 of 75

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A newborn experiences frequent periods of cyanosis, usually occurring during crying or after feeding. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

Select one of the following:

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  • Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect

  • Tetralogy of Fallot

Question 45 of 75

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A newborn baby is severely cyanotic. An echocardiogram reveals transposition of the great arteries. A nurse assesses for which of the following, as it usually occurs with this defect?

Select one of the following:

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  • The aorta leaving the right ventricle

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  • The pulmonary artery leaving the right ventricle

Question 46 of 75

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A newborn child is diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot. What symptoms would the nurse expect to observe in the child?

Select one of the following:

  • Leg pain and twitching

  • Epistaxis and anemia

  • High-pitched cry and dyspnea

  • Cyanosis and hypoxia

Question 47 of 75

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A 5-year-old female is found to have hypertension during three separate visits to her primary care provider. The nurse would expect tests to suggest that the hypertension is secondary to:

Select one of the following:

  • Renal disease

  • Hypocalcemia

  • Hyponatremia

  • Brain tumor

Question 48 of 75

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A 1-month-old infant visits his primary care provider for a well-baby check. Physical exam reveals decreased cardiac output, hypotension, tachycardia, and a loud murmur suggestive of aortic stenosis. Which of the following would be expected with this diagnosis?

Select one of the following:

  • Atrial dilation

  • Ventricular hypertrophy

  • Decreased contractility

  • Atrial rigidity

Question 49 of 75

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The nasopharynx is lined with a ciliated mucosal membrane with a highly vascular blood supply. The nurse is discussing the functions of this membrane. Which information should be included? One function of the membrane is to:

Select one of the following:

  • Absorb Air

  • Humidify Air

  • Exchange gases

  • Cool Air

Question 50 of 75

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A 42-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he suffered a severe head injury. He died shortly after the accident from loss of respiration. The nurse suspects the area of the brain most likely involved is the:

Select one of the following:

  • Brainstem

  • Cerebral Cortex

  • Basal Ganglia

  • Thalamus

Question 51 of 75

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While planning care for a patient with respiratory difficulty and retaining too much carbon dioxide, which principle should the nurse recall? _______ would be stimulated in an attempt to maintain a normal homeostatic state.

Select one of the following:

  • Irritant receptors

  • Central chemoreceptors

  • Peripheral chemoreceptors

  • Stretch receptors

Question 52 of 75

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A patient asks how oxygen is transported in the body. What is the nurse’s best response? Most of the oxygen (O2) is transported:

Select one of the following:

  • Dissolved in the plasma

  • Bound to hemoglobin

  • As a free-floating molecule

  • In the form of carbon dioxide (CO2)

Question 53 of 75

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Which principle should the nurse remember while planning care for a patient with respiratory problems? Diffusion of respiratory gases takes place at the:

Select one of the following:

  • Alveolocapillary membrane

  • Respiratory center

  • Parietal pleurae

  • Visceral pleurae

Question 54 of 75

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A 10-year-old female develops pneumonia. Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Orthopnea

  • Dyspnea

  • Cyanosis

  • Hyperpnea

Question 55 of 75

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A nurse is teaching staff about pulmonary edema. Which information should the nurse include? The most common cause of pulmonary edema is:

Select one of the following:

  • Left Heart Failure

  • Asthma

  • Lung Cancer

  • Right Heart Failure

Question 56 of 75

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A 50-year-old male presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. Based upon these assessment findings, what does the nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?

Select one of the following:

  • Transudative pneumothorax

  • Open pneumothorax

  • Pleural effusion

  • Tension pneumothorax

Question 57 of 75

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A 20-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting difficulty breathing when lying down. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Dyspnea

  • Tachypnea

  • Orthopnea

  • Apnea

Question 58 of 75

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A 42-year-old female presents with dyspnea; rapid, shallow breathing; inspiratory crackles; decreased lung compliance; and hypoxemia. Tests reveal a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?

Select one of the following:

  • Sarcoidosis

  • Malignant respiratory failure

  • Postoperative respiratory failure

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Question 59 of 75

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A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by:

Select one of the following:

  • Type II alveolar cell injury and decreased surfactant

  • Collapse of the cartilaginous rings in the bronchi

  • Mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema

  • Alveolar fibrosis and pulmonary edema

Question 60 of 75

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A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months’ duration. When obtaining the patient’s history, which of the following findings is most likely to cause this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Air Pollution

  • Recurrent Pneumonias

  • Cigarette Smoke

  • Chronic Asthma

Question 61 of 75

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A 30-year-old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing with periods of apnea. What term should the nurse use when charting this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Apnea

  • Orthopnea

  • Cheyne-Stokes

  • Frank-Starling

Question 62 of 75

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When the nurse observes a diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia, the patient generally acquires this pneumonia:

Select one of the following:

  • During Hospitalization

  • In the winter season

  • At day care centers

  • On airplanes

Question 63 of 75

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Which of the following patients is at highest risk for developing pulmonary embolism (PE)?

Select one of the following:

  • 36-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse who is recovering from a gastric ulcer

  • 21-year-old male with a hemophilia bleeding disorder

  • 72-year-old male who is recovering from hip replacement surgery in the hospital

  • 28-year-old woman who had a baby 6 months earlier

Question 64 of 75

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When a patient has a massive pulmonary embolism (PE), what complications will the nurse monitor for?

Select one of the following:

  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

  • Damage to the lung microcapillaries

  • Shock and death

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Question 65 of 75

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A 1-year-old female is diagnosed with croup. When the parent asks what caused this, what is the nurse’s best response? The most likely cause of this disease is:

Select one of the following:

  • Bacteria

  • Acute Hyperventiliation

  • Allergy

  • Viral Infection

Question 66 of 75

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A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following will the nurse most likely observe on the culture report?

Select one of the following:

  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

  • Haemophilus B influenzae

  • Parainfluenza virus

  • Respiratory syncytial virus

Question 67 of 75

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While planning care, a nurse recalls respiratory distress and hypoxemia in laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by:

Select one of the following:

  • Nasopharyngeal obstruction

  • Mucosal edema

  • Infectious pulmonary edema

  • Decreased surfactant

Question 68 of 75

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While reviewing lab results, to help confirm a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a 1-year-old child which substance will be present in the child’s sweat?

Select one of the following:

  • Carbonic acid

  • Sodium chloride

  • Potassium

  • Magnesium

Question 69 of 75

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To prevent sudden infant death syndrome, the nurse should instruct parents to:

Select one of the following:

  • Keep the infant’s room very warm.

  • Always lay infants down on their backs to sleep.

  • Breast-feed their infants.

  • Place infants on a soft mattress for sleeping.

Question 70 of 75

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A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. When obtaining the patient’s history, which of the following is the most important predisposing factor for this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Premature Birth

  • Low Birth Weight

  • Alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy

  • Smoking by the mother during pregnancy

Question 71 of 75

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During a respiratory assessment of an infant with respiratory distress syndrome, a sinking in the supraclavicular and intercostal areas of the thorax was noted with inspiration. This observation is documented as:

Select one of the following:

  • Grunting

  • Retractions

  • Nasal Flaring

  • Tachypnea

Question 72 of 75

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When a staff member asks what the patent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery in a fetus is called, how should the nurse reply? It is the:

Select one of the following:

  • Septal Defect

  • Foramen Ovale

  • Ductus Arteriosus

  • Sinus Venosus

Question 73 of 75

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A 20-year-old male is in acute pain. An arterial blood gas reveals decreased carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Which of the following does the nurse suspect is the most likely cause?

Select one of the following:

  • Hyperventilation

  • Apnea

  • Hypoventilation

  • Cyanosis

Question 74 of 75

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A 65-year-old female with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breathing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucous membranes. How should the nurse chart this condition? Patient has:

Select one of the following:

  • Hematemesis

  • Hemoptysis

  • Cyanosis

  • Ischemia

Question 75 of 75

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A 28-year-old male reports to his primary care provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. When giving report, what term should the nurse use to describe this condition?

Select one of the following:

  • Rhinitis

  • Hematemesis

  • Cyanosis

  • Hemoptysis

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