What sign develops with changes in normal hydrostatic pressure?
What are the sensible (measurable) means through which fluid is lost?
What are the insensible (immeasurable) means through which fluid is lost?
Fluid loss can be increased during a hypermetabolic state. What is a hypermetabolic state?
What is the minimum urine amount needed to excrete toxic waste products?
What role does ADH play in regulating Na+ and water balance?
What role does aldosterone play in regulating Na+ and water balance?
What role does ANH play in regulating Na+ and water balance?
Which pathway is greatly stimulated with shock, or when stress response is stimulated?
What is hypovolemic shock?
If a patient is dehydrated but incontinent and a fall risk, is it appropriate to let them decrease their fluid intake before bed?
When a patient is receiving IV therapy for dehydration, what things do you need to be monitoring for?
What are the common causes of fluid overload?
Severe hypervolemia can lead to...
If your patient has fluid overload, what position should they be placed in?
mannitol (Osmitrol) is an example of what kind of diuretic?
Which drugs are - rarely used in the management of HTN d/t short duration of action & availability of better drugs?
Besides ototoxicity and potasium depletion, what is another possible adverse effect of Lasix?
What is the primary use of mannitol (Osmitrol)?
What is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia?
What does isotonic mean?
Which solution is the most physiologically adaptable fluid?
What does D5W do?
What is the net result when dextrose is added to isotonic or hypotonic solutions?
What are some examples of pH buffers?
When cells metabolize glucose under anaerobic conditions, this produces...
Where does bicarbonate come from?
How do kidneys control acid-base mechanisms?
How does ammonium effect acid-base levels?
When referring to the kidney's role in pH regulation, what does full compensation mean?
When the kidneys bring the pH almost back to a normal range, this is referred to as...
When looking at lab values for respiratory and metabolic pH, which is inversely proportional?
What is combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis?
Who is at risk for combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis?
What are some S/S of acidosis?
What is the hallmark of respiratory acidosis?
What is the hallmark of base excess acidosis?
What is the hallmark of respiratory alkalosis?