When describing the male urinary anatomy, which information should the nurse include? The portion of the male urethra that is closest to the bladder is the _____ portion.
While planning care for a patient with urinary problems, the nurse recalls that the reninangiotensin system will be activated by:
Decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles
Elevated sodium concentrations
Increased blood volume
When the nurse is discussing the functional unit of the kidney, what other term should the nurse use?
A 35yearold hypertensive male begins taking a diuretic. Which of the following common side effects of this medication should the nurse monitor?
Increased Uric Acid Secretion
When the nurse is discussing the sodiumsensing cells of the glomerulus, what term should the nurse use?
Loop of Henle
A 28-year-old female presents with fever, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. A nurse recalls the patient’s infection is located in the:
A 42yearold male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. The nurse realizes he is in acute renal failure caused by:
Obstruction of the proximal tubule
Immune complex deposition in the glomerulus
Inadequate renal blood flow
A 60yearold male is diagnosed with renal failure. While the nurse is reviewing lab results, which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?
Increased urea clearance
Decreased plasma potassium level
Elevated plasma creatinine level
A 45yearold female presents with hypertension, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and anemia. She is diagnosed with chronic renal failure. When the patient asks what caused this anemia, how should the nurse respond? Your anemia is caused by:
Red blood cells being lost in the urine
Inadequate production of erythropoietin
Red blood cells being injured as they pass through the glomerulus
Inadequate iron absorption in the gut
A 42yearold female is diagnosed with chronic renal failure, and the nurse is discussing dietary treatment. Which information indicates the nurse understands dietary regimen? Treatment includes restricting:
When a patient asks what the most common type of renal stones is composed of, how should the nurse respond? The most common type of renal stone is composed of:
A 25yearold female presents with burning urination. She was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. When the nurse checks the culture results, which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract?
Upon examination of a male infant, it is determined that the urethral meatus is located on the undersurface of the penis. The nurse will document this condition as:
Which of the following clusters of symptoms would make a clinician suspect a child has developed glomerulonephritis?
Dysuria, urinary frequency, and abdominal tenderness
Proteinuria, hypotension, and ascites
￼Gross hematuria, flank pain, and hypertension
Pyuria, fever, and abdominal pain
A 7yearold male presents to his primary care provider for incontinence. His mother indicates that he has never been continent. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will observe on the chart?
A 15yearold female presents with flank pain, irritability, malaise, and fever. Tests reveal glomerulonephritis. When the parents ask what could have caused this, how should the nurse respond?
Which information indicates the nurse has a good understanding of female anatomy? Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle then develops into:
A theca cell
An atretic follicle
A corpus luteum
Which information indicates the nurse has a good understanding of progesterone? Progesterone is primarily secreted by the:
A clinician is preparing to teach about spermatogenesis. Which information should the clinician include? Spermatogenesis occurs in the:
When a staff member asks the nurse what the thick middle layer of the uterine wall is called, what is the nurse’s best response? The:
In the majority of cases delayed puberty is due to:
A disruption of the pituitary
A disruption in the hypothalamus
Ambiguity in sex determination
A 21yearold female is infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) following unprotected sexual intercourse with a male she recently met. She is now at higher risk of developing which of the following cancers?
Cryptorchidism can be defined as:
Problems with testicular descent
An abnormal state in which the testes are overdeveloped
Lack of a scrotum
A normal developmental state of the testes
A middle aged male speaks to his physician about benign BPH. He reveals that his father was recently diagnosed with this condition, and he wants to know if he could have it. The physician tells him that a common complaint from men with mild to moderate BPH is:
Decreased Urinary Stream
The patient’s medication has a side effect of gynecomastia. The patient asks the nurse to define this term. The nurse would respond that gynecomastia is:
Overdevelopment of breast tissue in males
A type of breast cancer
Inflammation of the mammary glands in lactating women
Lack of breast development in women
A 25yearold female presents with amenorrhea and hirsutism. She is diagnosed with PCOS. Lab testing will most likely reveal:
Genetic cancerous mutations
A 30yearold female with newly diagnosed PCOS is being counseled by her OBGYN. The physician indicates that this condition often results in:
Pelvic inflammatory disease
A 23yearold sexually active female presents with white copious discharge and itch. She is diagnosed with yeast vaginitis caused by overgrowth of which microorganism?
The descent of the bladder and the anterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal is called a:
A 40yearold female presents with cramping and excessive vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound reveals benign uterine tumors in the smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. These tumors are commonly called:
Which sphincter prevents reflux of digested material from the colon into the small intestine?
The ileum and jejunum are suspended by folds of the peritoneum known as the _____ that contains an extensive vascular and nervous network.
In the liver, free bilirubin moves from the plasma in the sinusoids into the hepatocytes, where it is converted into:
The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains:
Islets of Langerhans
The nursing student is teaching a class to second graders. The student would correctly identify that food moves down the esophagus via the process termed:
A 10monthold is brought to the pediatrician by the mother who states the baby has been experiencing colicky pain followed by vomiting, sweating, nausea, and irritability. Testing reveals a condition in which one part of the intestine telescopes into another. From which type of intestinal obstruction is he suffering?
A 20yearold male was recently diagnosed with lactose intolerance. He eats an ice cream cone and develops diarrhea. His diarrhea can be classified as _____ diarrhea.
Clinical manifestations of bile salt deficiencies are related to poor absorption of:
￼Fats and fatsoluble vitamins
A 30yearold obese female underwent gastric resection in an attempt to lose weight. Which of the following complications could the surgery cause?
Acid Reflux Gastritis
Which of the following symptoms would help a health care provider distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease?
Pattern of remission/exacerbations
A 16yearold female presents with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. Physical examination reveals rebound tenderness and a lowgrade fever. A possible diagnosis would be:
A 54yearold male complains that he has been vomiting blood. Tests reveal portal hypertension. Which of the following is the most likely cause of his condition?
Cirrhosis of the liver
Thrombosis in the spleen
Left ventricular failure
Manifestations associated with hepatic encephalopathy from chronic liver disease are the result of:
Decreased cerebral blood flow
Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
Impaired ammonia metabolism
An increase in the rate of red blood cell breakdown causes which form of jaundice?
A 55yearold female has general symptoms of gallstones but is also jaundiced. IV cholangiography would most likely reveal that the gallstones are obstructing the
Common Bile Duct
Intrahepatic Bile canaliculi
Reflux esophagitis is defined as a(n):
Secretory response to hiatal hernia
Inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Immune response to gastroesophageal reflux
Which of the following gastrointestinal (GI) clinical manifestations is subjective? (Select all that apply.)
Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because:
Fluid reserves are lower in children
Children have lower adipose reserves.
Children are more resistant to antimicrobial therapy.
Children have a lower metabolic rate.
Which condition should the nurse assess for in mothers carrying fetuses affected by esophageal malformations?
Short umbilical cords
Excessive amniotic fluid
Foul smelling vaginal discharge
A mother brings her 2weekold infant to the pediatrician because he vomits forcefully for no apparent reason and food sometimes is regurgitated as though undigested. The infant is most likely suffering from:
A 2monthold female with Down syndrome is diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease following family complaints of chronic constipation. The most likely cause of these symptoms is:
Absence of ganglia along the length of the colon
Excessive use of glycerin suppositories to promote bowel elimination
Additional ganglia throughout the length of the colon
The use of cow’s milk instead of formula
When a staff member asks the nurse about the contractile unit of a muscle, how should the nurse reply? The contractile unit of a muscle cell is called the:
When the nurse is using the term “sarcopenia,” what is the nurse describing? It is the:
Absence of muscle cells
Agerelated loss in skeletal muscle
Muscles that are unable to contract
Fatigue of muscle cells
While planning care for a patient with muscle problems, which information should the nurse remember? _____ ions directly control the contraction of muscles.
The nurse observed the patient’s muscle contracted, but the limb did not move. How should the nurse chart this muscle contraction?
Which of the following clinical findings would be expected in the patient with rhabdomyolysis?
Yellow Color to the Skin
Lower Extremity Swelling
A 70yearold female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely contributed to her condition is:
Excessive dietary calcium
￼Increased androgen levels
Decreased estrogen levels
A disorder similar to osteomalacia that occurs in growing bones of children is termed:
A 54yearold female was recently diagnosed with degenerative joint disease. This condition is characterized by loss of:
The joint capsule
Researchers now believe that RA is:
Curable with antiviral agents
An autoimmune disease
A complication of rheumatic fever
Related superficial joint injury
A 46yearold male presents with severe pain, redness, and tenderness in the right big toe. He was diagnosed with gouty arthritis. The symptoms he experienced are caused by the crystallization of _____ within the synovial fluid.
A 32yearold male was injured in a motor vehicle accident and confined to bed for 3 weeks. During this time, the size and strength of muscle fibers decreased, a condition referred to as:
A 70yearold female with osteoporosis fractures her leg at a location of preexisting abnormality. She reports that the fracture occurred following a minor fall. Which of the following best describes the fracture?
Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by:
Diffuse pain, fatigue, and tender points
Neurologic pain in the skeletal muscles
Muscle pain in the back and gastrointestinal symptoms
Pain resulting from joint and muscle inflammation
Ewing sarcoma originates from:
The Bone Marrow
Children with OI suffer from frequent:
Tinea corporis (ringworm) is a _____ infection of the skin.
A 20yearold female presents with vaginal itch and thinwalled pustular lesions. She is diagnosed with candidiasis. This condition is caused by a:
When assessing a patient with scleroderma, which changes in the skin will be observed?
A 40yearold female is diagnosed with skin cancer. Her primary care provider explains that the most important risk factor for skin cancer is:
Amount of sun exposure over age 50
Living in equatorial regions where the sun is most intense
Amount of direct sun exposure at a young age
Lifetime amount of sun exposure
In burn injury patients, the rule of nines and the Lund and Browder chart are used to estimate:
Degree of systemic involvement
Possibility of infection
Total body surface area burned
Depth of burn injury
A 30yearold male firefighter is badly burned and is admitted to the emergency department. Which of the following would be expected in the first 24 hours?
Decreased Levels of Stress Hormones
Increased Capillary Permeability
Rubella, rubeola, and roseola are common communicable diseases caused by _____ infection.
If a woman has a 28 day menstrual cycle, when will ovulation occur?
A 40 year old patient is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis? What lab values would you expect to find?
Elevated AST and ALT
Elevated amylase and lipase