Hydrothermal processes at mid-ocean ridges affect both the composition of the oceanic crust and that of seawater. For example, hydrothermal activity is the principal “sink” for the element _____________in seawater
. If the Earth were to rotate in the opposite direction to its current rotation, so that the sun rose in the west and set in the east, the Coriolis Effect would deflect moving objects:
. to the left in the Southern Hemisphere,
. to the right in the Northern Hemisphere,
always to the north,
always to the south,
to the right in the Southern Hemisphere
The height of wind-generated waves is determined by
none of the above
all of the above
Mediterranean Intermediate Water is the saltiest and densest water mass in the world ocean.
Antarctic Bottom Water is the coldest and densest water mass in the world ocean
arises from the earth’s rotation
accounts for the counter-clockwise rotation of the subtropical gyres in the Northern Hemisphere
. accounts for the clockwise rotation of the subtropical gyres in the Northern Hemisphere
A and B are correct
A and C are correct
Cyclonic circulation is
clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
associated with high pressure cells
never in geostrophic balance
The Ekman spiral:
. is maintained by a balance of Coriolis and gravitational forces
is maintained by a balance of Coriolis, wind shear, and viscous (frictional) forces
. leads to a surface current 45° to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere
B and C are correct
During El Nino/Southern Oscillation years, global weather patterns are altered, including:
more fires and droughts in Indonesia and Australia
weaker coastal upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water off Peru
. more winter storms and rainfall in southern California
along the west coasts of continents typically
in the open ocean where currents converge
in the open ocean where currents diverge
only answers a and c are correct
Coral reefs do not grow well near the mouths of major rivers because of their intolerance to low salinities and high sedimentation rates.
Caribbean coral reefs are found at the location marked by the number
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a:
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from:
Submarine Canyons are most characteristic of the
fractures in the sea floor
Why is the ocean salty?
sodium and chlorine are added by rain water
sodium and chlorine are the elements least likely to be removed by chemical and biological processes
submarine volcanic eruptions contribute sodium and chlorine
sodium and chlorine are the most abundant elements brought down by rivers
sodium and chlorine are created by marine organisms
Oxygen-depleted zones of the oceans, such as the one at the mouth of the Mississippi River, are most likely caused by
large numbers of fish that are using up all the oxygen in the water
a reduction in the plant life in rivers that empty into the ocean near the dead zone
excessive fertilizers carried into the ocean, which cause algal blooms that lower the oxygen levels
thermal pollution in the ocean
acid precipitation falling on the ocean
A certain chemical has a concentration of 10 ppm in water. Which statement most accurately describes its concentration?
There are 10 molecules of the chemical in one million molecules of water
There are 10 million molecules of the chemical in the sample.
There are 10 molecules of the chemical in 10 million molecules of water.
There are 10 million molecules of the chemical in a 1-liter beaker.
There are 10 molecules of water in one million molecules of the chemical.
Salt intrusion into freshwater aquifers; beach erosion; and the disruption of coastal fisheries are all possible results of which of the following?
Rising ocean levels as a result of global warming
More solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth
More chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere
Reduced rates of photosynthesis
Use of the oceans as waste disposal area
In sea water, carbon is mostly found in the form of
All of the following gases contribute to rising global air temperatures EXCEPT
Convectional heating and cooling of the atmosphere transfers which of the following to other parts of the earth?
I and II only
I, II and III
The North Atlantic Current provides which of the following for Europe and North America?
Large amounts of CO2 to promote photosynthesis
Cold saltwater to help form icebergs
Mineral-rich waters to reduce depleted mineral reserves
Warm water that moderates land temperatures
Fish to feed predators such as killer whales
Ozone depletion is occurring most rapidly in the earth’s polar regions because
there are more researchers studying the problem at the poles than at the equator
the atmosphere is thicker at the poles, so ozone destruction is easier to observe
large amounts of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can accumulate on ice crystals formed in the cold atmosphere
the upper atmosphere winds form a pattern of high and low pressure systems that can cause the destruction of ozone
the solar UV radiation is stronger at the poles, promoting the breakdown of ozone
During an El Niño-Southern Oscillation, weather events change in which of the following areas?
The Pacific and Indian Oceans
The Atlantic and Indian Oceans
The Arctic Sea
The Indian and Antartic Oceans
The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans