What is the cell cycle?
What are stem cells?
What is differentiation? What is totipotency?
What is interphase?
What is M phase?
How is nuclear division different from cytokinesis?
What problem does the cell wall pose for plant cells that are dividing?
What is G1?
What happens during G1?
Do all cells finish G1 and move on to the next phase(s)? Why or why not?
What is the S phase?
What happens during S phase?
What form is DNA in during this phase? What are histones?
What is the centromere?
What is endoreplication & where might you expect to find it happening?
What is G2?
What happens during G2?
What is the spindle/what is it made of?
What is chromatin?
Where is it found?
How is it different from chromosomes? What is the purpose of chromosomes? What are chromatids & what process do they originate from?
What are homologous chromosomes? Where does the original cell of an organism get each of its homologous chromosomes?
How are alleles different from genes?
What is/are the overall function(s) of mitosis?
What is produced by mitosis?
How many cells?
How do the daughter cells compare genetically to each other & to the original parent cell?
What are the four steps of mitosis?
What happens in each one?
When does cytokinesis occur?
What is its function?
How are the cell walls of the new daughter cells formed?
What is a gamete?
How do gametes compare to the parent cells they originated from?
What is a zygote?
How does it compare (genetically) to the gametes that it forms from?
How does the zygote compare to the original parent cells that produced the gametes?
What is meiosis?
What is the overall function of meiosis? How many cells are produced by the meiosis of one original cell, and how do these daughter cells compare to each other & to the original parent cell?
What are the stages in the first half of meiosis?
What happens in this first half that is very different from what happens in mitosis? What do the homologous chromosomes do?
Why is this important?
What is synapsis?
What is crossing over?
Why is it important?
What controls which chromosomes end up together in gametes?
Does meiosis always produce 4 daughter cells?
Why or why not?
What would be an example of an exception?
What does the term “coenocytic” mean?
What is alternation of generations?
What do the terms haploid & diploid mean?
What process makes haploid cells from diploid cells?
What is syngamy?
What is the result of syngamy?
What is a gametophyte?
What do gametophytes produce?
By which kind of cell division process? What is a sporophyte?
What do sporophytes produce?
By which kind of cell division process?
What is the advantage of having a sheltered (rather than a free-living) gametophyte generation?
What does the term gymnosperm mean? What are the four existing divisions of gymnosperms?
What does the term heterosporous mean?
What are megaspores & what develops from them?
What are microspores & what develops from them?
What process gives rise to megaspores & microspores?
What is a sporophyll?
What are megasporophylls & microsporophylls?
In seed plants, where does the megagametophyte form? (What is the other term/phrase for the megagametophyte?)
Does the megagametophyte develop into a more or less separate plant that is visible outside the sporangium?
Where does production of and fertilization of the egg take place?
In seed plants, where does the microgametophyte form?
What do the microgametophytes produce?
What are some of the characteristics of division Coniferophyta?
Do members of this division have vessels in their wood?
Do members of this division have swimming sperm?
In the Coniferophyta, what structure contains megasporophylls?
What is the integument?
What is the micropyle?
What is the ovule?
Is the ovule composed of haploid cells, diploid cells, or both?
What member of the Aracauriaceae was recently discovered, and where?
What are some of the characteristics of cycads?
What does the term dioecious mean?
Are cycads more or less dependent on moisture in their environment compared to Coniferophyta? Why?
What are the three genera of the gnetophyta?
Where would you find these three kinds of plants?
What are some of the characteristics within the gnetophyta that they share with flowering plants? What kind of evidence has been used to evaluate the relationship between gnetophytes & flowering plants? What conclusion was reached from this work?