+ MnO4- -->
+ H2O/H2SO4 -->
+ H2 Ni Catalyst -->
+ HBr -->
+ Alcoholic KOH
+ steam cracking
+ Br2 U.V. light
+ Alcoholic NH3
+ acyl chloride
+ Conc. H2SO4
+ diols/carboxyllic acids and condensation
+ H+/Cr2O72- and heat
+ Na BH4 + OH-
Undergo fermentation to form...
+ H+/Cr2O72- and Heat
+ Na BH4
+ H+/Cr2O72- and Heat reflux
+ Alcoholic H2SO4
+SOCl2 or PCl3
+ H20 (vigorous reaction)
+ Alcoholic NH3
Geometrical isomers occur in _____ and are different in terms of ______. They form ____ and ____ isomers.
They are the rearrangement of ___________________________________________________________________.
Optical isomers (enantiomers):
The molecule needs a ________________ and it reflects _____________________________________________________________.
What is it?
What type of reactions does it work for?
What type of compounds does it not occur for?
(Acetylene = ehtyne)
Classification and how each class reacts
Isomerism - what type of isomers can sometimes occur?
Why can't you smell Ethanol gas?
Primary Alcohols undergo ___________ reactions with just about any _____________________.
What has happened if a reaction of ethanol with permanganate does not produce a carboxylic acid?
Secondary alcohol reaction:
Tertiary alcohols only oxidise if you ______________________ however the molecule falls apart => cannot be oxidised.
Markovnikov and Saytzeff's rules produce _______ products ___% of the time and _________ products __% of the time.
Saytzeff's rule can only occur from the ___________ products of Markovnikov's rule.
What type of reactions do acyl chlorides undergo compared to carboxylic acids?
Reactions -with water
- with ammonia
- with amines
- with alcohols
- Why are they not formed via elimination?
Carboxylic acid and alcohol react in equilibrium to form ___________ when ____________ is used as a catalyst and a reflux is used?
What type of smell foes an ester have and what is it commonly used in?
How are polymers formed?
It is the strength of _______ and ___________________ interactions between molecules.
Some compounds have ______________ forces that are much stronger than ordinary ______________ forces.
How do you identify an alkene?
How do you identify an alkyne?
How do you identify an alcohol?
How do you identify an aldehyde?
How do you identify an amine?
How do you identify a carboxylic acid?