The pulse of the femoral artery is best felt at which superficial reference point?
Anterior to the ankle joint
Right lateral portion of the hypogastrium
At which site could one expect to enter the femoral vein with a simple percutaneous (through the skin) introduction of an instrument?
Above the middle of the inguinal ligament
Lateral to the femoral arterial pulse
Lateral to the pubic tubercle
Medial to the femoral arterial pulse
Medial to the pubic tubercle
What anterior thigh muscle must be retracted to expose the adductor canal and its contents?
An obturator hernia that compresses the obturator nerve in the obturator canal may affect the function of all of the following muscles EXCEPT:
Which of the following is NOT located within the adductor canal?
Nerve to vastus medialis
Deep femoral artery
Inability to extend the knee and loss of cutaneous sensation over the anterior surface of the thigh would indicate a lesion or compression of the:
Superior gluteal nerve
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
Which statement is true?
The femoral artery lies medial to the femoral vein
The femoral vein lies medial to the femoral artery
The external iliac veins join to form the inferior vena cava
The inferior vena cava cannot be imaged radiographically
A and C
The femoral artery enters the popliteal fossa (becoming the popliteal artery) by passing through the:
When the femur is fractured, the broken distal end often turns posteriorly to enter the popliteal fossa due to muscle traction. Because of its position deepest in the fossa, which structure is most vulnerable to laceration?
Common fibular n.
Lesser saphenous v.
The deep femoral artery is the principle blood source for the muscles in which compartment of the thigh?
A fracture of the ishial tuberosity might be expected to most directly affect the muscles that produce which lower limb movement?
Abduction at the hip
Adduction at the hip
Extension at the knee
Flexion at the hip
Flexion at the knee
An elderly patient complains of difficulty in walking up stairs. Tests by her doctor reveal weakness in extension at her hip, but no change in hip flexion, or flexion or extension of the knee. Based upon these results, what muscle is most likely not functioning properly.
Weakness in climbing stairs or jumping would indicate a lesion of which nerve?
The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve comes from the:
Medial cord nerve
In withdrawing a blood sample from the median cubital vein the needle passes slightly deep and medial; which nerve might possibly be injured?
Dorsal ulnar cutaneous
Lateral antebrachial cutaneous
Medial antebrachial cutaneous
Posterior antebrachial cutaneous
The vein of choice for withdrawing blood is the:
Which of the following statements for knee joint is true:
Is synovial joint:
Can only do flexion and extension
The knee cap (patella) takes part in this joint
Possesses synovial pockets called bursae
Medial meniscus gets 10 times more frequently injured.
The following nerves are directly related to the humerus
The radial nerve
The median nerve
The ulnar nerve
The axillary (circumflex) nerve
The musculocutaneous nerve.
The shaft of the humerus
Has the lateral head of the triceps muscle attached to its upper posterior part
Has a nutrient foramen directed downwards
Has the radial nerve posterior to it
Has the brachialis muscle attached to its anterior surface
In the adult contains red bone marrow
The basilic vein
Begins on the medial side of the back of the wrist
Becomes deep about the middle of the upper arm
Ends by joining the subclavian
Is medial to the biceps muscle in the upper arm
Ends after piercing the clavipectoral fascia.
The upper end of the humerus
Has the subscapularis muscle attached to the greater tuberosity
Has the teres major muscle attached to the floor of the intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove)
Has three epiphyses which fuse separately with the shaft
Has the capsular ligament of the glenohumeral attached to the whole of the anatomical neck.
Is the growing end of the humerus
The cephalic vein
Begins in the region of the anatomical snuff box
At the elbow is deep to the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm
Ends by joining the brachial vein
Has no valves
The medial cord of the brachial plexus
Gives a branch to the pectoralis major muscle
Gives origin to the ulnar nerve
Forms part of the median nerve
Contains fibres of the fifth cervical spinal nerve
Lies medial to the axillary artery
The axillary nerve
Has no cutaneous branches
Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles
Passes backwards inferior to the teres major muscle
Contains fibres from the fifth and sixth cervical spinal nerves
Is medial to the long head of the triceps muscle.
The pectoralis major muscle
Is attached to the floor of the intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove)
Is supplied by branches of the three cords of the brachial plexus
Is a lateral rotator of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint
Is involved in flexion of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint
Is used in climbing a rope by means of the upper limbs
The posterior cord of the brachial plexus
Contains fibres from only the seventh and eight cervical spinal nerves
Gives off a branch which joins the median nerve
Is posterior to the axillary artery
Gives off branches which supply the subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles
Contains fibres which supply the muscles on the back of the forearm.
The deltoid muscle (or part of it) can be used in
Medial rotation of the upper arm at the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
Abduction of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint
Lateral rotation of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint
Adduction of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint
Flexion of the upper arm at the glenohumeral joint.
The lower end of the humerus
Has part of the supinator muscle attached to it
Has the ulnar nerve running posterior to its lateral part
Usually has its four separate epiphyses by 12 years
Fuses with the shaft before the upper end fuses with the shaft
Has part of the pronator teres muscle attached to it.
Flexion of the upper limb at the shoulder through 180' from the anatomical position
Requires the contraction of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle
Involves the contraction of the anterior part of the deltoid muscle
Involves a muscle supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve
Involves the contraction of the serratus anterior muscle
Involves muscles supplied mainly by the eight cervical spinal nerve
In the cubital (antecubital) fossa
The ulnar nerve is on the medial side
The radial nerve is on the lateral side
The median nerve passes downwards on the lateral side of the brachial artery
All the superficial veins are deep to the cutaneous nerves
The brachial artery is lateral to the tendon of the biceps muscles.
The deltoid muscle
Is supplied solely by the axillary (circumflex) nerve
Is supplied solely by the sixth and seventh cervical spinal nerves
Is associated with contraction of the supraspinatus muscle in abduction of the upper arm at the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
Is attached to the posterior surface of the clavicle
Is attached to the humerus just distal to the lesser tuberosity.
The femoral vein in the femoral triangle
Is medial to the femoral artery
Is lateral to the femoral canal
Directly receives the greater (long) saphenous vein
Directly receives the superficial epigastric vein
Directly receives the profunda femoris vein.
The following muscles are inserted into the greater trochanter of femur EXCEPT:
The adductor (subsartorial) canal
Is bounded laterally by the vastus lateralis muscle
Contains the profunda femoris vessels
Contains a large arterial branch which takes part in the anastomosis round the knee joint
Contains the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle
Contains the saphenous nerve
The femoral canal
Is the lateral compartment of the femoral sheath
Contains some lymph vessels
At its proximal end its posterior to the inguinal ligament
At the proximal end is medial to the femoral vein
Contains the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve
The obturator nerve:
Has an anterior branch which is anterior to the adductor longus muscle
Supplies both the hip and knee joints
Has a posterior branch which supplies the obturator externus muscle
Is lateral to the ureter in the pelvis
The piriformis muscle
Is attached to the greater trochanter
Emerges from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen
Is a lateral rotator of the thigh at the hip
Is inferior to the gluteus medius in the buttock
Has the sciatic nerve emerging inferior to its lower border
The femoral nerve
Continues as a cutaneous branch which runs along the lateral border of the foot
Supplies the iliacus
Supplies the pectineus muscle
Supplies the obturator externus muscle
Lies within the femoral sheath
The deep fascia of the thigh
Is attached to the inguinal ligament
Is deep to the great (long) saphenous vein
Transmits only veins
Receives the insertion of the whole of the tensor fasciae latae muscle
Contains the saphenous opening which is situated 3cm below and medial to the pubic tubercle.
The biceps femoris muscle
Has a common origin with the semitendinosus muscle from the ischial tuberosity
Has a short head which is attached to the femur medial to the attached of the adductor magnus muscle
Is entirely innervated by the common peroneal (lateral popliteal) nerve
Is superficial to the common peroneal nerve
Is a lateral rotator of the leg on the thigh when the leg is fully extended at the knee joint
With regard to the quadriceps femoris muscle
The rectus femoris has one attachment to the hip bone.
The vastus intermedius is attached to the medial surface of the femur
The vastus lateralis has fleshy fibres extending more distally than those of the vastus medialis
The lowermost fibres of the vastus medialis are vertically arranged
Its nerve supply comes from the lumbar and sacral spinal nerves.
None of the above (option not included on the test)
The gluteus maximus muscle
Is attached to the introchanteric line of the femur
Is attached to the iliotibial tract
Is an extensor of the trunk on the lower limb
Contracts during normal walking on flat ground
Contracts during normal walking upstairs.
Gives directly or indirectly branches to the hip and knee joints
Gives branches to the quadriceps femoris muscle
Gives off the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
Originates from the second, third and fourth lumbar spinal nerves
Lies between the psoas and iliacus muscle external to the fascia iliiaca
The popliteal artery
Is anterior to the popliteal vein
Is anterior to the tibial (medial popliteal nerve)
Is anterior to the popliteus muscle
Divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries at the lower border of the popliteus muscle
Is lateral to the semimembranosus muscle
The psoas major muscle
Is innervated by the anterior primary rami of the first three lumbar spinal nerves
Is attached to the lesser trochanter
Is an extensor of the thigh at the hip
Is lateral to the femoral nerve
In its upper part is posteromedial to the ureter.
The femoral triangle
Is bounded below and medially by the adductor brevis muscle
Has a floor formed by the iliacus muscle, the psoas major tendon, the pectineus muscle and adductor longus muscle
Contains the femoral vessels with the femoral nerve medial to them
Is roofed over by the fascia lata of the thigh
Contains the obturator nerve
The right gluteus medius muscle
Is attached to the lateral side of the greater trochanter
Is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
Is essential for normal walking on flat ground
Is an abductor of the thigh at the hip
Is usually contracted when standing on the right lower limb.
The femoral artery
Is anterior to the femoral vein in the upper part of the adductor (subsartorial) canal
Passes through the adductor longus muscle
Is deep to the adductor brevis muscle
Has no branches in the adductor canal
Lies behind psoas major on the capsule of the hip joint
The obturator nerve
Arises from the second, third and fourth lumbar nerves
Lies above the obturator vessels on the lateral wall of the pelvis
Supplies the obturator internus muscle
Has no sensory branches
Supplies the gracilis muscle
Initiates abduction of the shoulder
Has an extensive range of action because it is multipennate
Is supplied by the radial nerve
Inserts into a rough elevation on lateral aspect of humerus
Together with the head of humerus, it is responsible for the characteristic roundness of the shoulder
The axillary artery
Begins at the upper border of the clavicle
Terminates as it crosses the inferior border of pectoralis minor
Is contained in the axillary sheath
Has the median nerve anterior to its proximal third
Has the radial nerve behind its distal third
The biceps brachii:
Flexes both the shoulder and the elbow joints
Both supinates and pronates the forearm
Short head arises from clavicle
Tendon of long head is partially enclosed in synovial membrane
Is supplied by the median nerve
In the adult vertebral column
The primary curves are in the thoracic and sacral region.
There is more flexion and extension in the lumbar region than in the thoracic region
There is more rotation about a longitudinal axis in the thoracic region than in the lumbar region
The transverse processes are posterior to the articular processes in all the vertebrae
The shape of the intervertebral discs contributes to the secondary curves