Counseling Theories I & II Final Exam Study Quiz

Question 1 of 180

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Perfect vs. Failure is an example of a problematic __________.

Select one of the following:

  • Polarity

  • Act

  • Opposition

  • Counterbalance

Question 2 of 180

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The statement: "The more one tries to change (and be who one is not), the more one stays the same," refers to what concept in Gestalt counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • Paradoxical Theory of Change

  • Organismic Self-Regulation

  • Awareness

  • Integration of Polarities

Question 3 of 180

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When a person has integrated polarities, they have:

Select one of the following:

  • Accepted more aspects of the self

  • Made peace with who and what one is

  • A responsive relationship with the environment

  • Trust in the self and life itself

Question 4 of 180

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Gestalt counselors work with clients to confront their "shoulds" in order to help clients:

Select one of the following:

  • Live authentically

  • Regulate emotions in unhealthy ways

  • Avoid taking existential responsibility for their lives

  • Confront others putting pressure on them

Question 5 of 180

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The idea that Gestalt counselors use their whole personhood to make real authentic contact with clients is best explained as counselors:

Select one of the following:

  • Freely sharing their thoughts and feelings as they occur in session

  • Expressing few emotions to protect the client

  • Not making or admitting mistakes in session

  • Avoiding rattling the client

Question 6 of 180

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What is the primary vehicle for change in Gestalt counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • The person of the counselor

  • The interventions

  • The theory

  • The client

Question 7 of 180

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Gestalt counselors offer clients their presence in __________ experiences in the counseling session.

Select one of the following:

  • Here-and-now

  • Emotional

  • Unhampered

  • Unconscious

Question 8 of 180

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How would the attitudes and behaviors of a counselor with a Gestalt theoretical orientation compare to those of a counselor with a person-centered theoretical orientation?

Select one of the following:

  • The Gestalt counselor would act bored, irritated, or impatient if that's the way he or she felt whereas the person-centered counselor would practice unconditional positive regard and display empathy.

  • The two would behave in similar ways, both focusing on unconditional positive regard and empathy.

  • Both counselors would always let a client know how the client's behavior is affecting the counselor.

  • The person-centered counselor would be more likely to use confrontation tactics with the client.

Question 9 of 180

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In Fritz Perl's native language of German, the word describing the concept of people being understood holistically and contextually is:

Select one of the following:

  • Gestalt

  • Adler

  • Psychodynamic

  • Existential

Question 10 of 180

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Interventions in Gestalt counseling are designed to encourage clients to make __________ and complete the __________ cycle.

Select one of the following:

  • Contact/Encounter

  • Excuses/Avoidance

  • Changes/Withdrawal

  • Peace/Life

Question 11 of 180

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Gestalt counselors believe neuroses and other problems develop when a person:

Select one of the following:

  • Avoids direct contact with parts of the self

  • Has a sense of personal inferiority

  • Avoids directly confronting existential realities

  • Has conflicts between the id and superego

Question 12 of 180

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Asking your client to speak aloud while in session what she is afraid to say to a person, would be an example of what Gestalt intervention?

Select one of the following:

  • Experiment

  • Body Awareness

  • Language Modification

  • Dream Work

Question 13 of 180

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In general, most schools of feminist and multicultural counseling will consider all of the following aspects of a person's experience except:

Select one of the following:

  • Effect of gender

  • Effect of culture

  • Effect of irrational emotion

  • Effect of relationship

Question 14 of 180

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According to systemic counselors, the symptoms clients present with in counseling are viewed as:

Select one of the following:

  • Related to systemic dynamics

  • Dysfunctional

  • Homeostatic

  • Abnormal

Question 15 of 180

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The following statement: "At the end of the session, the client cannot say which 'side' the counselor was on," is an example of a counselor successfully achieving __________.

Select one of the following:

  • Homeostasis

  • Quid pro quo

  • Neutrality

  • Partiality

Question 16 of 180

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Systemic counselors view the presenting problem not as an individual problem but a __________one, specifically an interactional one, even if the counselor is working with an individual.

Select one of the following:

  • Dysfunctional

  • Relational

  • Pathological

  • Independent

Question 17 of 180

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One of the most thoroughly researched family systems approaches that empirically validated treatment for treating couples is:

Select one of the following:

  • Integrative Couples Therapy

  • Emotionally Focused Therapy

  • Brief Strategic Family Therapy

  • Functional Family Therapy

Question 18 of 180

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Feminist counselors see women as developing the self:

Select one of the following:

  • In and through relationships

  • In isolation

  • Autonomously

  • Separate from others

Question 19 of 180

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Systemic approaches are a set of theories that conceptualize an individual's symptoms as arising where?

Select one of the following:

  • The unconscious mind

  • Within family and relational dynamics

  • From social oppression

  • When a person is not self-actualized

Question 20 of 180

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The experience a client has, in which he or she rejects parts of self, becoming disconnected from the self as well as others, is referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • Disempowerment

  • Shame

  • Self-control

  • Internalized oppression

Question 21 of 180

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The purpose of enactments in systemic counseling is what?

Select one of the following:

  • To avoid seeing couples or family arguing in your office

  • To hear couples and families describe how they interact

  • To help couples and families to argue in your office

  • To observe and restructure couple and family interactions in your office

Question 22 of 180

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Feminist counselors use assertiveness training to help empower clients. The goal of assertiveness training is for clients to:

Select one of the following:

  • Attend only to the needs of self

  • Attend to both the needs of self and others with balance

  • Attend only to the needs of others

  • All of the above

Question 23 of 180

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An egalitarian relationship is a critical aspect to feminist counseling.
An egalitarian relationship involves:

Select one of the following:

  • Counselors and clients discussing power dynamics inherent in the therapy process.

  • Clients sharing their opinions and asking questions about the counseling process.

  • Counselors and clients collaborating to decide how best to address clients' problems.

  • All of the above contribute to egalitarian relationships in therapy

Question 24 of 180

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Family systems counselors are fundamentally strengths-based. This means focusing on each of the following EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • Advocating against labeling families as dysfunctional

  • Focusing on religious beliefs or hobbies to develop interventions

  • Seeing the individual as the enemy of the family

  • Recognizing the family as supportive and protective to individuals

Question 25 of 180

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Shifts in family structure, during the early stages of counseling, which seem like radical change but the underlying family rules remain the same, refer to what?

Select one of the following:

  • Self-correcting

  • First-order change

  • Cybernetics

  • Second-order change

Question 26 of 180

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According to feminist and multicultural counselors, the desire for __________ is the primary motivating factor, and fundamental to an individual's sense of well-being.

Select one of the following:

  • Control

  • Oppression

  • Connection

  • Individuation

Question 27 of 180

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One of the strengths of systems theory and it application for working with diverse populations is its __________ approach.

Select one of the following:

  • Problem focused

  • Non-pathologizing

  • Solution Focused

  • Multigenerational

Question 28 of 180

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Gender-role analysis, a defining intervention used by feminist counselors, involves:

Select one of the following:

  • Asking only female clients about how the rules regarding male and female behavior may affect the client's current problem

  • Focusing on the problem as inherent in the client

  • Asking questions of clients to help identify cultural rules from multiple contexts that may be interacting with the current problem

  • Blaming different contexts (religion, work, family, etc.) in the client's life for the current problem

Question 29 of 180

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An example of a relational system within which systemic counselors view their clients would be:

Select one of the following:

  • Mother, father, siblings

  • Online communities

  • Church

  • All of the options are correct

Question 30 of 180

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According to feminist counselors, the personal is political, refers to the interconnectedness of a person's internal reality with political issues from the broader social context. This is true for:

Select one of the following:

  • Men

  • Women

  • Transgender

  • All of the options are correct

Question 31 of 180

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__________ refers to when a system restructures its homeostasis in response to positive feedback, and the rules that govern the system fundamentally shift.

Select one of the following:

  • Self-correcting

  • First-order change

  • Cybernetics

  • Second-order change

Question 32 of 180

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A major philosophy of feminist counseling approaches places societal issues at the heart of treatment. This is consistent with which of the following approaches?

Select one of the following:

  • Psychodynamic

  • Cognitive Behavioral

  • Solution Focused

  • Narrative

Question 33 of 180

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Feminist counselors promote social activism and social justice through their own actions and with their clients. This can be accomplished by:

Select one of the following:

  • Supporting clients' finding ways to make a difference in their communities in ways that work for the client

  • Requiring clients to start groups for peers in their communities suffering from similar struggles

  • Advocating for clients no matter what the cost (personally or professionally) to the therapist

  • All of the options are correct

Question 34 of 180

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The basic listening sequence consists of which skills?

Select one of the following:

  • attending behavior, listening skills, and self-disclosure

  • questions, encouragers, paraphrases, reflection of feeling, and summarizations

  • verbal underlining, attending behavior, and influencing skills

  • open questions, closed questions, attending behavior, check-out

Question 35 of 180

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When you demonstrate effective attending behavior, clients usually

Select one of the following:

  • become happier.

  • talk more freely and respond more openly.

  • ask more questions.

  • let you speak about your personal experiences.

Question 36 of 180

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The Microskills Hierarchy

Select one of the following:

  • demonstrates clearly that different clients have different needs.

  • demonstrates that alternative settings for counseling require different skills.

  • describes the skills in order of importance.

  • provides a picture of the microskills as they move from attending to influencing to skill integration.

Question 37 of 180

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If you use an encourager correctly, you may anticipate the client to

Select one of the following:

  • paraphrase what you have said back to you accurately.

  • stop talking about that topic and move on to something more important.

  • indicate that he or she appreciates what you are doing.

  • explore a topic more in depth, often leading to exploration of deeper meanings of the concept that has been encouraged.

Question 38 of 180

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Attending behavior includes individually and culturally appropriate

Select one of the following:

  • visuals.

  • verbal tracking.

  • body language.

  • all of the options are correct.

Question 39 of 180

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A primary difference between an interpretation / reframe and a reflection of meaning is that

Select one of the following:

  • reflection of meaning remains in the client's own frame of reference, while interpretation / reframe comes from the counselor's frame of reference.

  • reflection of meaning deals with meaning, while interpretation / reframe deals with feeling.

  • reflection of meaning is an influencing skill, while interpretation / reframe is an attending skill.

  • reflection of meaning helps the client to come to alternative ways to consider a situation, while interpretation / reframe does not.

Question 40 of 180

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The foundation of the Microskills Hierarchy is (are)

Select one of the following:

  • ethics, multicultural competence, and wellness.

  • attending behavior.

  • influencing behavior.

  • determining one's own personal style of helping.

Question 41 of 180

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Which question would most effectively probe for meaning according to the authors?

Select one of the following:

  • Could you give me a specific example?

  • Do you really mean it?

  • How do you REALLY feel?

  • What values underlie your actions?

Question 42 of 180

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The authors argue that natural style is a basic building block of intentional counseling. Which of the following is NOT part of their view of natural style?

Select one of the following:

  • It is best to identify one's natural style and then always hold to it.

  • We all have natural strengths in communication.

  • Too many people in interviewing training may forget the many strengths they bring to the course even before instruction begins.

  • Instruction, practice, and learning new skills and strategies can enhance natural style.

Question 43 of 180

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Intentional interviewing is concerned with

Select one of the following:

  • finding the single best response for each client statement.

  • the counselor knowing one theory exceptionally well.

  • having many alternative responses available to any client statement.

  • explaining to the client why you made that particular choice.

Question 44 of 180

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The authors of your text recommend using a positive asset search because it enables clients to

Select one of the following:

  • find a more positive center before they talk about their concerns in detail.

  • realize that they have internal strengths that will help them rewrite their stories in a more positive fashion.

  • ignore really difficult problems.

  • Both answers 1 and 2

Question 45 of 180

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The basic listening sequence is more likely to be used in

Select one of the following:

  • the rapport / structuring phase of the interview.

  • gathering information.

  • defining goals.

  • concluding the interview and generalization.

  • all of the above.

Question 46 of 180

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When the feelings of the client are not fully understandable and seem confused,

Select one of the following:

  • it is best to ignore the feeling until you understand fully what the client is saying.

  • paraphrase and summarize what you have heard.

  • reflect the feelings as you have heard them, but include a check-out for accuracy.

  • all of the above.

  • none of the above.

Question 47 of 180

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"I feel really terrible. My folks have divorced. They have moved apart and I don't know where to live." Which would be a reflection of feeling in response to this client?

Select one of the following:

  • "Terrible?"

  • "Looks like you have had a bad experience. I can see that it would be tough deciding what to do next."

  • "Sounds like you're really upset and are confused as to what to do next."

  • "How do you feel about having to choose where you'll live?

Question 48 of 180

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According to the authors, feedback is LEAST effective

Select one of the following:

  • when it deals with one or two things at a time.

  • when it is general rather than specific.

  • when it is a check to ensure clear communication.

  • when it is asked for by the recipient.

Question 49 of 180

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The most important function of summarizations is that

Select one of the following:

  • they feed back the essence of many things that might have been missed otherwise.

  • they break the routine or paraphrasing, questioning, and encouraging.

  • they bring together the things a client has been saying in an organized fashion.

  • they provide an opportunity for the interviewer to summarize his or her own ideas.

Question 50 of 180

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The following options contain both open and closed questions. Select all the OPEN Questions.

Select one or more of the following:

  • What was it like for you to prepare for the final exam?

  • What time is it now?

  • How old are you?

  • Will you be glad when you have finished the final exam?

  • Do you like taking final exams?

  • How do you feel about taking a final exam?

  • What does your family do to celebrate the holidays?

  • Why do you want to be a counselor?

Question 51 of 180

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Identify the theory or best response. Though humans are born with the potential for rational thinking, there is a tendency toward crooked and irrational thinking.

Select one of the following:

  • psychoanalytic therapy

  • behavior therapy

  • REBT

  • reality therapy

  • none of the above

Question 52 of 180

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The concept of transference is important in:

Select one of the following:

  • psychoanalytic therapy

  • reality therapy

  • REBT

  • behavior therapy

  • none of the above

Question 53 of 180

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The Oedipus complex is stressed in:

Select one of the following:

  • existential therapy

  • family systems therapy

  • Gestalt therapy

  • Adlerian therapy

  • none of the above

Question 54 of 180

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The approach that begins with a comprehensive lifestyle assessment, and which stresses family constellation and early memories, is:

Select one of the following:

  • Adlerian therapy

  • psychoanalytic therapy

  • existential therapy

  • family systems therapy

  • none of the above

Question 55 of 180

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Rollo May and Viktor Frankl are associated with which approach to therapy?

Select one of the following:

  • person-centered therapy

  • Gestalt therapy

  • psychoanalytic therapy

  • existential therapy

  • none of the above

Question 56 of 180

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Which of the following is NOT associated with behavior therapy?

Select one of the following:

  • focus on cognitive patterns

  • focus on exploring repressed childhood feelings

  • ocus on specific target behaviors

  • focus on learning responses

Question 57 of 180

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Which of the following techniques would not likely be used by the person-centered therapist?

Select one of the following:

  • interpretation of dreams

  • active listening

  • reflection

  • clarification

  • caring confrontations

Question 58 of 180

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Systematic desensitization is a technique used in which approach?

Select one of the following:

  • Adlerian therapy

  • existential therapy

  • Gestalt therapy

  • behavior therapy

  • none of the above

Question 59 of 180

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A contribution of behavior therapy is that it:

Select one of the following:

  • is a pragmatic approach based on experimental validation of the results.

  • gives a rationale for explaining self-defeating behavior.

  • focuses on insight.

  • emphasizes freedom, choice, and deciding.

Question 60 of 180

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All of the following are a part of the Gestalt therapy system except:

Select one of the following:

  • unfinished business.

  • striving for superiority.

  • energy and blocks to energy.

  • avoidance.

Question 61 of 180

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Identify the word or phrase in the following series of five that does not fit with the other four items:

Select one of the following:

  • life stages

  • developmental crises

  • psychosocial stages

  • stress inoculation training

  • critical tasks

Question 62 of 180

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Identify the word or phrase in the following series of five that does not fit with the other four items:

Select one of the following:

  • fictional finalism

  • basic mistakes

  • A-B-C theory

  • social interest

  • style of life

Question 63 of 180

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When considering using psychoanalytic approaches for working with diverse populations, the counselor should pay close attention to which of the following factors?

Select one of the following:

  • Attend to the client's attitude toward introspection, rationality, and psychological analysis

  • Incorporate the client's unique interpersonal context into the counseling process

  • Adapt conceptualization and interventions to client needs and realities

  • All of the above

Question 64 of 180

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When a brief psychodynamic counselor uses an opportunity in session to clarify with clients and work through old childhood traumas and relational patterns that may show up in the counseling relationship, this is referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • Cultural assessment

  • Client-counseling encounter

  • Corrective emotional experience

  • Countertransference

Question 65 of 180

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Jung believed in the idea of a collective unconscious. This was __________ the conscious and unconscious mind described by Freud.

Select one of the following:

  • In lieu of

  • In addition to

  • Superior to

  • Inferior to

Question 66 of 180

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Empathy is required of all good counselors. Which option below is the best definition of empathy?

Select one of the following:

  • The feeling of pity or sorrow for someone else

  • The ability to grasp another's internal reality

  • The willingness to forgive somebody

  • The ability to feel regret

Question 67 of 180

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Which of the following is an accurate definition of countertransference?

Select one of the following:

  • When a counselor projects back onto a client in a way that negates therapeutic neutrality

  • When a counselor keeps their emotional reactions toward the client out of counseling

  • When a counselor has insight into their unconscious reactions to their clients

  • When a counselor shares an undesirable feeling about a client with the client

Question 68 of 180

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Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approaches in counseling are considered depth psychologies, because they explore __________.

Select one of the following:

  • Current relationships

  • The blank slate

  • The unconscious mind

  • The here and now

Question 69 of 180

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Freud's drive theory is comprised of the idea that the human psyche is fueled by the energy of instinctual drive. The energy of the system is known as:

Select one of the following:

  • Sexuality

  • Libido

  • Object Relations

  • Superego

Question 70 of 180

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An analyst views symptoms presented by the client as expressions of__________ and also considers the primary and secondary gains of the symptom for the client.

Select one of the following:

  • Psychotic conflict

  • Interpersonal gains

  • Intrapsychic conflict

  • Natural consequences

Question 71 of 180

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One of the major differences between Erikson's psychosocial stages of development and Freud's psychosexual stages of development would be:

Select one of the following:

  • Erickson's psychosocial stages of development extend across the lifespan

  • Freud's psychosexual stages of development extend across the lifespan

  • Erickson's psychosocial stages of development are completed in childhood

  • Freud's psychosexual stages of development are completed in adulthood

Question 72 of 180

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Both Freud and Jung used dream analysis as a hallmark technique in their work with clients. Which of the following statements below does NOT accurately reflect Jung's view of dreams and dream analysis?

Select one of the following:

  • Dreams reveal unconscious material

  • Dreams serve to deal with suppressed aggressive impulses

  • Dreams are the unconscious expressing itself

  • Dreams must be interpreted using the dreamer's unique meanings

Question 73 of 180

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The counseling process in psychoanalysis is an intensive approach designed to create significant and sustainable personality change. Which of the following characteristics DO NOT apply to the process?

Select one of the following:

  • Analysts meet with patients 3 to 5 days per week

  • Analysts target very specific symptoms or problems

  • Analysis-insight-working through-process repeats at deeper levels

  • Analysis is an expensive endeavor for patients

Question 74 of 180

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An individual who is able to spontaneously express need and desire while maintaining a clear distinction between self and other is believed to be the product of:

Select one of the following:

  • Distant mothering

  • Chaotic mothering

  • Good enough mothering

  • Perfectionist mothering

Question 75 of 180

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In general, current psychodynamic counseling involves three generic phases. Which of the following is correct?

Select one of the following:

  • Listening, Interpretation, and Working Through

  • Listening, Facilitation, and Advising

  • Assessment, Facilitation, Working Through

  • Assessment, Interpretation, Understanding

Question 76 of 180

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Freud's three levels of consciousness include: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Freud focused his work in which area of the consciousness?

Select one of the following:

  • Conscious

  • Preconscious

  • Unconscious

  • Postconscious

Question 77 of 180

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Archetypes can be defined as:

Select one of the following:

  • Unconscious universal patterns that can be traced across cultures and influence how people think, feel, and behave

  • Unorganized part of the personality that is motivated by instinctual drives

  • A part of a person's conscious mind that involves intellect, cognition, defense mechanisms, and other executive functions

  • Holds memories, thoughts, and desires that the conscious mind cannot tolerate and is the source of innate drives

Question 78 of 180

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In Freudian and ego psychology, analysts typically maintain a neutral relation to clients to provide a "blank slate" upon which clients can project unconscious material. This neutral stance also provides what?

Select one of the following:

  • The client connection to their frustration, in order to get at deeper feelings

  • The analyst the opportunity to examine their countertransference on the client

  • The analyst to allow for transference, by carefully observing the client's process

  • The client the opportunity to discuss topics not related to the presenting problem

Question 79 of 180

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Freudian analysts conceptualize client problems by examining how the __________ manages ongoing conflicts between the __________'s drives and the __________'s prohibitions.

Select one of the following:

  • Superego/Id/Ego

  • Id/Ego/Superego

  • Ego/Id/Superego

  • Ego/Superego/Id

Question 80 of 180

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Transference can best be defined by which statement below?

Select one of the following:

  • The counselor ascribing a personal thought, feeling, or impulse to the client

  • The client projecting attributes from unresolved issues with primary caregivers to the counselor

  • The counselor identifying with the experiences and feelings of the client

  • The client's confusion of past experiences with the present reality

Question 81 of 180

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Object relations theorists are most concerned with how an infant internalizes relationships in the first three years of life and the impact of those relationships on adult personality development. Relationships with whom become the templates for all future relationships?

Select one of the following:

  • Caregivers

  • Siblings

  • Daycare Providers

  • Playmates

Question 82 of 180

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To be clear, Freudian psychoanalysis is considered the root of all psychodynamic approaches. This type of treatment approach is characterized by all of the following concepts EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • Analyst warmth

  • A couch

  • Long term

  • Multiple weekly sessions

Question 83 of 180

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Adler's approach to counseling has been characterized as:

Select one of the following:

  • A feminist-multicultural approach

  • A humanistic-cognitive-behavioral approach

  • A postmodern-family systemic approach

  • An analytic-behavioral-cognitive approach

Question 84 of 180

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Adler suggested that people's futures are not defined by their pasts, but rather that people have __________ in how they approach their lives.

Select one of the following:

  • Power

  • Choice

  • Difficulty

  • Clues

Question 85 of 180

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Which of the following IS NOT a general guideline for Adlerian counselors offering interpretation of the purpose of a client's symptoms:

Select one of the following:

  • The interpretation should avoid globally labeling the person

  • The overall tone of the interpretation process should be encouraging

  • The interpretation should be offered as an unquestionable truth

  • The interpretation should focus on the goal or purpose of a behavior

Question 86 of 180

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Which of the statements below is TRUE regarding the usefulness of the Adlerian approach with diverse populations?

Select one of the following:

  • The emphasis on social interest is particularly appropriate for cultures that value family and community over individuality.

  • The emphasis on spirituality is consistent with values in many traditional cultures and ethnic groups.

  • The emphasis on childhood experiences and memories may not seem relevant to people who do not share the dominant Western assumption that these events shape a person's personality.

  • All of the above

Question 87 of 180

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"To see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another" describes what characteristic of Adlerian counselors?

Select one of the following:

  • Encouragement

  • Directive

  • Egalitarian

  • Empathy

Question 88 of 180

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The idea that humans are innately social creatures relates to Adler's notion of social interest or community feeling which can be defined as which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • A person subjectively experiencing a sense that he/she has something in common with other people, is a part of a community, and benefits from cooperating with others in the community.

  • A person's striving toward meaningful activity, success, and achievement with purposeful and goal-oriented behavior.

  • A person striving for superiority and betterment of self by developing a characteristic set of attitudes and assumptions that help a person make sense of life.

  • None of the above

Question 89 of 180

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Once psychoeducational material has been delivered by the Adlerian counselor and understood by the client, the next part of the counseling session should focus on task setting. This involves:

Select one of the following:

  • Planning what the counselor and client will work on in the next session of therapy

  • Finding a way for the client to implement the idea in his/her life outside of session to solve a current problem

  • Asking the client to think of all the ways the information has applied the client's life in the past

  • Providing the client with more psychoeducation

Question 90 of 180

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In an egalitarian counseling relationship between the counselor and the client, the client will:

Select one of the following:

  • See the counselor as the expert on the client's life

  • See the counselor as completely neutral in the therapeutic process

  • Maintain a sense of agency and choice in the therapeutic process

  • Maintain a sense of indifference between him or her self and the counselor

Question 91 of 180

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In the Adlerian approach, the long-term goal of wellness refers to:

Select one of the following:

  • Life, love, and the pursuit of happiness

  • Physical, emotional, and social wellbeing

  • The American Dream

  • Not being ill

Question 92 of 180

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Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) is a promising evidence-based parenting program based on Adlerian principles that uses __________, __________, and __________to improve child behaviors and parent-child relations.

Select one of the following:

  • Natural consequences, encouragement, and appreciation

  • Encouragement, motivation, and reframing

  • Encouragement, appreciation, and motivation

  • Challenging, encouragement, and appreciation

Question 93 of 180

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A great way for Adlerian counselors to assess the underlying purpose or role that symptoms may have for the client is:

Select one of the following:

  • Using The Question

  • Dream Analysis

  • Assessing basic mistakes

  • Exploring early recollections

Question 94 of 180

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If an Adlerian counselor made the statement "The upside of worrying is that you tend to be good with details," she would be doing what to encourage clients?

Select one of the following:

  • Lying

  • Embellishing

  • Reframing

  • Challenging

Question 95 of 180

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Adler used early childhood recollections as a means for understanding a person's style of life. Which of the following questions is most appropriate for assessing earliest recollections?

Select one of the following:

  • Can you describe the role of each child in the family?

  • Did you have favorite strategies for getting your way?

  • When you think back over your childhood, what are your earliest memories?

  • Describe your relationship to your parents as a child?

Question 96 of 180

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Adlerian counseling involves four stages. During the first phase of counseling, the focus is what?

Select one of the following:

  • Counselors making a positive, warm connection with their clients

  • Counselors assessing clients' style of life and private logic

  • Counselors helping clients to gain better self-understanding

  • Counselors challenging clients to take action and change their lives.

Question 97 of 180

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Adler's Individual Psychology departed from his colleagues Freud and Jung on numerous issues. In one issue, Adler posited that a person must be seen __________, as a unified personality or "individual."

Select one of the following:

  • Holistically

  • Socially

  • Subjectively

  • Realistically

Question 98 of 180

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An Adlerian counselor is going to assess a client's life style. Which of the following statements best describes the life style, style of life or style of living?

Select one of the following:

  • How a person characteristically responds to others and the environment

  • A person's fundamental beliefs about what is valuable in life, what is ideal, and what is to be avoided

  • The self, personality, unity of the personality, individuality, method of facing problems, opinion of self, view of life problems, and general attitude towards life

  • All of the Above

Question 99 of 180

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In the late phase, clients work toward developing habits of living that promote wellness and social interest in all six areas of functioning. What are the six area of functioning?

Select one of the following:

  • work, friendship, love, self acceptance, wholeness, and parenting

  • work, friendship, love, self reliance, spirituality, and parenting

  • achievement, friendship, love, self acceptance, spirituality, and parenting

  • work, friendship, love, self acceptance, spirituality, and parenting

Question 100 of 180

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Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about the process of promoting insight in Adlerian work?

Select one of the following:

  • Adlerians collaboratively work with their clients to find meaningful interpretations of client motivations.

  • Adlerians rely on the counselor's objective perspective to determine the correct interpretation.

  • Adlerians use insight as an impetus to take action and make changes.

  • Adlerians offer possible interpretations of behavior by underlying motivations for problems.

Question 101 of 180

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Each of the following are tips for effectively providing psychoeducation to clients EXCEPT:

Select one of the following:

  • Practice explaining concepts to your family and friends

  • Ask clients if they are open to learning about a certain concept

  • Keep going with the psychoeducational information until the client gets it

  • Only try to teach one concept, point, or skill in a session

Question 102 of 180

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The Adlerian approach is characterized by its deliberate efforts to encourage the client. Which of the following statements most accurately describes encouragement in the Adlerian counseling context?

Select one of the following:

  • Verbally saying, "This is something I believe you can do."

  • A warm, "I-feel-your-pain" sentiment from the counselor

  • Using counselor self-disclosure to help clients develop hope

  • Expressing unconditional positive regard toward the client

Question 103 of 180

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When a client is describing an intense emotional experience and reports feeling very angry but smiles while telling the story, a person-centered counselor might use which intervention to address discrepancies in the client’s presentation?

Select one of the following:

  • Reflecting

  • Clarifying

  • Immediacy

  • Confrontation

Question 104 of 180

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When a person-centered counselor focuses on the process in counseling, this means what?

Select one of the following:

  • The counselor focuses on how the client interacts with self and others

  • The counselor consistently redirects clients to negative thoughts and feelings

  • The counselor pays close attention to the stories clients tell

  • The counselor boldly confronts client inconsistencies

Question 105 of 180

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When a counselor asks, “Can you say more about what you mean by feeling angry?” This is an example of what type of question?

Select one of the following:

  • Clarifying

  • Listening

  • Reflecting

  • Summarizing

Question 106 of 180

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Phenomenology is the study of the internal, subjective world. What person-centered intervention is most important for attending this internal world of clients?

Select one of the following:

  • Clarifying

  • Summarizing

  • Reflecting

  • Listening

Question 107 of 180

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Which of the following is the overarching goal in person-centered counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • Personality change

  • Self actualization

  • Individuation

  • Congruence

Question 108 of 180

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In person-centered counseling the focus of the approach is on?

Select one of the following:

  • How things happen

  • Symptoms

  • Problems

  • What happens

Question 109 of 180

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Person-centered counselors view what as the primary vehicle for change?

Select one of the following:

  • The counselor’s interpretations

  • The counseling relationship

  • The counselor’s interventions

  • A brand new sports car

Question 110 of 180

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What is the fundamental instrument of change in person-centered counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • Analysis of dreams

  • The client

  • The counselor

  • Focused Attending

Question 111 of 180

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Humanistic counseling approaches are grounded in a type of philosophy that examines a person’s subjective inner reality. This is known as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Phenomenological philosophy

  • Grounded philosophy

  • Confrontational philosophy

  • Postmodern philosophy

Question 112 of 180

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The research and evidence base related to the existential approach for counseling indicate the most important quality in counseling is what?

Select one of the following:

  • The counseling relationship

  • The theoretical orientation

  • The interventions

  • The instillation of hope

Question 113 of 180

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Existentialists maintain that a person's __________ plays a significant role in their presenting problem/psychopathology.

Select one of the following:

  • Fear of death

  • Self consciousness

  • Responsibility

  • Self awareness

Question 114 of 180

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Which of the following characteristics best describes the stance of existential counselors?

Select one of the following:

  • Cruel and uncaring

  • Reassuring and supportive

  • Promoting responsibility and independence

  • Stating: "I'm right there with you."

Question 115 of 180

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Existential counseling and person-centered counseling work toward what common, over-arching goal?

Select one of the following:

  • Curing mental illness

  • Dealing with crises in identity

  • Helping people live more authentic and self-actualized lives

  • Fostering healthy relationships with others

Question 116 of 180

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Many existentialists believe that life is inherently __________. Existential counselors work with clients to help clients find life __________.

Select one of the following:

  • Meaningless/Meaning

  • Fulfilling/Fulfillment

  • Predetermined/Determination

  • Purposeful/Purpose

Question 117 of 180

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Existential counselors rely most heavily on which of the following to promote change for their clients?

Select one of the following:

  • A special agent

  • The counseling relationship

  • The counselor's interventions

  • The counselor's interpretation

Question 118 of 180

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Systematic desensitization, a form of __________, is a technique frequently used with anxieties and phobias in which a client begins with a low intensity image and increasingly works toward direct contact with the stressful stimulus.

Select one of the following:

  • Classical conditioning

  • Operant conditioning

  • Reinforcement and punishment

  • Token economics

Question 119 of 180

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Unlike cognitive-behavioral theory, where how a person thinks about something is directly related to the cause of psychological problems, Glasser posits that the _________ people make determine the quality of their lives.

Select one of the following:

  • Reactions

  • Choices

  • Impact

  • Changes

Question 120 of 180

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Reality theory behavioral analysis involves the __________ system.

Select one of the following:

  • WDEP

  • REBT

  • BASIC-ID

  • MBSR

Question 121 of 180

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When using the DEF intervention of Ellis' A-B-C theory, cognitive-behavioral counselors specifically target __________ beliefs, which tend to be more emotionally charged and cause more problems for clients.

Select one of the following:

  • "hot"

  • "warm"

  • "cool"

  • "cold"

Question 122 of 180

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Which of the statements below is CORRECT in describing the way empathy is used in cognitive-behavioral counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • To create rapport with clients so the counselor can intervene to change the client's behaviors, thoughts and emotions.

  • To help the client be open to non-defensively hearing the therapist's interpretation of unconscious dynamics.

  • To encourage clients to identify, experience, and critically reflect upon their emotional inner experiences.

  • To empower clients to transfer learning in session to address areas of concern in their everyday lives.

Question 123 of 180

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According to Beck, depressed thinking is characterized by thoughts such as: "I'm worthless;" "life is unfair;" and "things will never get better." These thoughts are referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • BASIC-ID

  • Irrational Beliefs

  • Negative Cognitive Triad

  • Functional analysis

Question 124 of 180

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According to a cognitive-behavioral counselor, what fuels feelings such as depression or anxiety?

Select one of the following:

  • Personality

  • Culture

  • Beliefs

  • Experience

Question 125 of 180

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When a cognitive-behavioral counselor asks a client to log the frequency, duration, and severity of specific symptoms, the counselor is looking for what?

Select one of the following:

  • Problem behaviors

  • Baseline functioning

  • Precursory functioning

  • Natural consequences

Question 126 of 180

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In cognitive behavioral-counseling, the clients' beliefs can be slowly eroded over time by the therapist inviting the client to question and re-question the validity of their beliefs in various situations. This process is known as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Psychoeducation

  • Socratic method

  • Empty Chair Technique

  • Thought Recording

Question 127 of 180

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Considered the third wave of behavioral approaches, Mindfulness practices emphasize what to promote change?

Select one of the following:

  • Observation of the mind and acceptance of thoughts and feelings

  • How people choose everything they do

  • Confrontation to dispute irrational beliefs

  • Modifying dysfunctional thinking and beliefs

Question 128 of 180

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he foundation for dysfunctional thinking, __________ are the root of psychopathology according to Beck.

Select one of the following:

  • Automatic thoughts

  • Core beliefs

  • Intermediate beliefs

  • Dysfunctional schemas

Question 129 of 180

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Unlike psychodynamic or humanistic goals that target personality change, cognitive behavioral counseling is focused on individuals becoming:

Select one of the following:

  • Independent problem solvers

  • Able to change the structure of their psyche

  • Better in relationships with others

  • More authentic in how they live their lives

Question 130 of 180

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Each of the following statements: "I can develop a plan to do deal with the stress" and "One step at a time; I can handle this," is an example of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Positive self talk

  • Socratic Questioning

  • Guided discovery

  • Classical conditioning

Question 131 of 180

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Stress inoculation training helps clients to change their __________ and increase coping skills.

Select one of the following:

  • Faulty cognitions

  • Distorted thinking

  • Negative self talk

  • None of the above

Question 132 of 180

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It can be said that the overarching goal of cognitive-behavioral counseling is what?

Select one of the following:

  • Personality Change

  • Freeing the Unconscious

  • Symptom management

  • Improving relationships

Question 133 of 180

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Which of the following statements is true regarding cognitive-behavioral counseling and DSM diagnosis?

Select one of the following:

  • Cognitive-behavioral counselors have long challenged the practice of DSM diagnosis as an oppressive practice.

  • Cognitive-behavioral counselors do not use DSM classifications for the treatment of their clients

  • Cognitive-behavioral counselors explain the diagnosis so that the client fully understands the process and how it will help.

  • Cognitive-behavioral counselors organize treatment using DSM diagnosis.

Question 134 of 180

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Which of the statements below is TRUE regarding the essence of all cognitive approaches?

Select one of the following:

  • Our thoughts about a situation-not the situation itself-are the source of emotional and behavioral problems

  • Our feelings about a situation-not the situation itself-are the source of emotional and behavioral problems

  • Our responses to a situation-not the situation itself-are the source of emotional and behavioral problems

  • Our comments about a situation-not the situation itself-are the source of emotional and behavioral problems

Question 135 of 180

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Schemas, according to Beck, are what?

Select one of the following:

  • Cognitive frameworks in the mind, organizing and shaping thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

  • Beliefs are about ourselves

  • Extreme or absolute rules that are more general and shape automatic thoughts

  • "Knee-jerk" reactions to distressing situations that run through a person's mind

Question 136 of 180

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Behavioral, cognitive, and cognitive-behavioral approaches are a group of related counseling methods that emphasize achieving changes in behaviors, cognition, and __________.

Select one of the following:

  • Action

  • Affect

  • Attitude

  • Approach

Question 137 of 180

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Each of the following: selective abstraction, overgeneralization, and dichotomous thinking, are examples of what in cognitive-behavioral counseling?

Select one of the following:

  • Cognitive distortions

  • Schemas

  • Core beliefs

  • Irrational beliefs

Question 138 of 180

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When a client comes into counseling and does not have a complaint, but others generally have a complaint about the client, this type of counseling relationship is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Visitor-Type Relationship

  • Complainant-Type Relationship

  • Customer-Type Relationship

  • None of the above

Question 139 of 180

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Solution-based counseling usually involves clients leaving the first session with what?

Select one of the following:

  • Their problem resolved

  • The cause of their problem

  • Action steps toward solutions

  • Answers to their problems

Question 140 of 180

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The idea that solution-based counselors make no assumptions about a client's unique experiences and understandings of their problems is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Channeling language

  • Echoing Client's Key Words

  • Beginner's Mind

  • Optimism and Hope

Question 141 of 180

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Assessing client strengths can be achieved by what?

Select one of the following:

  • Directly asking about strengths, hobbies, and areas of life that are going well

  • Listening carefully for exceptions to problems

  • Identifying potential areas in which the "weakness" is a strength

  • All of the above

Question 142 of 180

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Which of the following statements is NOT an appropriate example of compliments used by solution-based counselors?

Select one of the following:

  • You really are a great mom.

  • You not only followed through on the chart idea we developed last week but you came up with your own additional strategies.

  • You made real progress toward your goal this week.

  • You have worked really hard this week to talk with your son on the phone.

Question 143 of 180

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Each of the following questions-"Are there any times when the problem is less likely to occur or be less severe?" "Can you think of a time when you expected the problem to occur but it didn't?" "Are there places or times when the problem is not as bad?"-are examples of what type of question?

Select one of the following:

  • Pre-suppositional questions

  • Coping questions

  • Scaling questions

  • Exception questions

Question 144 of 180

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The difference between the following two statements: "you aren't feeling understood" versus "you were not feeling understood by your boyfriend last Saturday," is an example of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Channeling language

  • Echoing Client's Key Words

  • Beginner's Mind

  • Optimism and Hope

Question 145 of 180

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Solution-focused school counseling is based on which one of the five assumptions?

Select one of the following:

  • Big problems require big solutions.

  • Clients need resources to make changes.

  • If it works, do more of it.

  • Cooperative relationships are necessary for solutions.

Question 146 of 180

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In solution-based approaches, the counselor collaborates with the client to envision __________ for the problem.

Select one of the following:

  • Alternatives

  • Solutions

  • Strategies

  • Explanations

Question 147 of 180

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"If 0 is where you were when you decided to seek help and 10 is where you would be if the problem you came here for was resolved, where are you today?" is an example of what type of intervention?

Select one of the following:

  • Pre-suppositional questions

  • Coping questions

  • The Miracle question

  • Scaling questions

Question 148 of 180

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Utilizing the previous case example, how might a solution-based counselor assess the client's description of solutions and motivate the client to change?

Select one of the following:

  • Use the miracle question

  • Identify exceptions

  • Use scaling questions

  • All of the above

Question 149 of 180

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In solution-based counseling, __________ are viewed as intimately connected with a client's context, but are not considered curative.

Select one of the following:

  • Solutions

  • Strengths

  • Emotions

  • Problems

Question 150 of 180

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Why is solution-based counseling appropriate for working with diverse populations?

Select one of the following:

  • It focuses on identifying client's strengths

  • It uses a theory of health to predefine client goals

  • It uses an established set of values and meaning systems

  • None of the above

Question 151 of 180

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In the beginning of counseling, goals should focus on what?

Select one of the following:

  • One small change

  • Broad changes

  • Daily change

  • Counselor prescription

Question 152 of 180

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Solution-based counselors believe that __________ is inevitable and always possible.

Select one of the following:

  • Happiness

  • Change

  • Satisfaction

  • Hope

Question 153 of 180

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When a client identifies a problem to be worked on in counseling, but generally expects the counselor to be the primary source of change, this type of counseling relationship is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Complainant-Type Relationship

  • Visitor-Type Relationship

  • Customer-Type Relationship

  • None of the above

Question 154 of 180

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The following statement: "Over the next week, I want you to generate a list of the things in your life and relationships that you do not want to have changed by therapy. Notice small things as well as big things that are working right now," is an example of what type of intervention?

Select one of the following:

  • The miracle question

  • Assuming Future Solution

  • Scaling Question

  • Formula first session task

Question 155 of 180

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Solution-focused counseling in schools focused on anger management, study skills, divorce, etc., can be addressed successfully using what type of counseling arrangement?

Select one of the following:

  • Individual sessions

  • Group Sessions

  • Family sessions

  • Both A and B

Question 156 of 180

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The role of the counselor in narrative counseling is often described as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Co-author

  • Expert

  • Coach

  • Diagnostician

Question 157 of 180

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The process of solution-based counseling is described as __________ rather than __________, highlighting that the problem is not necessarily related to the solution.

Select one of the following:

  • Solution building/Problem solving

  • Problem focused/ Solution focused

  • Collaborative/Individual

  • Individual/collaborative

Question 158 of 180

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A story or subplot in which the problem-saturated story does not play out in its typical way, with no dramatic ending or particularly notable outcome, is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Unique outcome

  • Problem narrative

  • Happy ending

  • Dull story

Question 159 of 180

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In narrative counseling, the counselor helps clients create more balanced descriptions of the events of their lives to enable clients to build more accurate and appreciative descriptions of themselves and others. This process is referred to as:

Select one of the following:

  • Thickening Descriptions

  • Enacting Preferred Narratives

  • Meeting the Person

  • Separating Persons from Problems

Question 160 of 180

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According to Michael White, problems do not exist separate from their socio-cultural context, which means narrative counselors integrate societal and cultural issues into the core conceptualization of how problems form and are resolved. This is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Dominant discourses

  • Dominant hand

  • Dominant choice

  • Dominant group

Question 161 of 180

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In narrative counseling, separating people from their problems to create space for new identities and life stories to emerge is referred to as what?

Select one of the following:

  • Externalizing

  • Listening

  • Enacting

  • Solidifying

Question 162 of 180

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Similarly to solution-based counselors, narrative and collaborative counselors focus on the client's what?

Select one of the following:

  • Independence

  • Strengths

  • Power

  • Problems

Question 163 of 180

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All of the following EXCEPT which one are examples of interventions used to develop and solidify preferred narratives and identities for clients?

Select one of the following:

  • Letters

  • Leagues

  • Reflecting teams

  • All of the above

Question 164 of 180

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Collaborative approaches in counseling are considered ideal for working with diverse populations for which of the following reasons?

Select one of the following:

  • They have international roots and are practiced in numerous countries around the world

  • They place societal issues of oppression at the heart of counseling interventions

  • They do not have pre-established theories of health

  • All of the above

Question 165 of 180

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In a session with her 13-year-old teenage client Dani, a collaborative counselor, Rosealee, decided to share her concerns about her client planning to sneak out for a high school dance she had been invited to over the weekend. Rosealee invited Dani to explore the counselor's concerns, as well as how Dani might manage the risks she might face going out unsupervised with several older teenagers. This intervention is an example of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Conversational Questions: Understanding from within the Dialogue

  • "Appropriately Unusual" Comments

  • Being Public with Significant Differences in Values and Goals

  • Accessing Multiple Voices in Writing

Question 166 of 180

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Similar to feminists, collaborative counselors maintain that the process of counseling is inescapably __________, and the counselor will likely be changed themselves because the same dialogical process that allows clients to change creates a context in which the counselor will also be changed.

Select one of the following:

  • Exclusive

  • Interactive

  • Mutual

  • Dependent

Question 167 of 180

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Which of the following statements regarding narrative counseling approaches is most accurate?

Select one of the following:

  • The problem is separate from the person

  • People cause their problems.

  • Problems are intrinsic in the person

  • People become their problems

Question 168 of 180

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The not-knowing in collaborative counseling refers to how counselors think about what they (think they) know and the intent with which they introduce this knowing (expertise, truths, etc.) to the client. This is an attempt to avoid what?

Select one of the following:

  • Assuming

  • Expertise

  • Power

  • Control

Question 169 of 180

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The concept of "__________" helps focus the counselor's attention on sincerely valuing the clients' thoughts, ideas, and opinions about their lives.

Select one of the following:

  • Client as expert

  • Client as helpless

  • Client as hopeful

  • Client as curious

Question 170 of 180

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Goals in narrative counseling focus on clients enacting preferred narratives, which involves increasing clients' sense of __________, the sense that they influence in the direction of their lives.

Select one of the following:

  • Agency

  • Happiness

  • Independence

  • Responsibility

Question 171 of 180

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In collaborative counseling, problems are not solved but rather__________; the participants' understandings evolve through dialogue, allowing for new thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Select one of the following:

  • Dissolve

  • Disappear

  • Diminish

  • Die

Question 172 of 180

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Asking questions such as "What do you do for fun?" "What do you like about living here?" and "Tell me about your friends and family," allows the narrative counselor to do what?

Select one of the following:

  • Meet the person for a good time

  • Find a new place to live

  • Meet the person apart from their problem

  • Schedule meaningful family time

Question 173 of 180

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According to narrative counselors, the following statement: "A 'happy' and 'good' person should get married, get a stable, high-paying job, have kids, get a nice car, buy a house, volunteer at his/her child's school, and build a white-picket fence," is an example of what?

Select one of the following:

  • A unique outcome

  • a dominant discourse

  • A problem-saturated story

  • An alternative discourse

Question 174 of 180

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In the broadest sense, the goal of Narrative Counseling is to help clients enact their preferred realities and identities. Which of the following is an example of a goal meeting these criteria?

Select one of the following:

  • Solidify a sense of personal identity that derives self worth from meaningful activities, relationship, and values rather than body size.

  • Increase sense of responsibility for own problems and their resolution.

  • Increase ability to identify and separate own feelings from that of others and ability to act on these feelings.

  • Increase ability to set realistic expectations for self and other to increase acceptance.

Question 175 of 180

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"Would it be okay if I ask you some questions about your sex life?" is an example of what type of question?

Select one of the following:

  • Permission

  • Externalizing

  • Scaffolding

  • Influence

Question 176 of 180

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Couples who choose not to have children, same-sex relationships, and immigrant families wanting to preserve their roots are all examples of what?

Select one of the following:

  • Unique outcomes

  • Dominant discourses

  • Alternative discourses

  • Problem-saturated stories

Question 177 of 180

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Who is the coolest member of the cohort??

Select one of the following:

  • Shelly

  • Dr. Greene

  • Trey Bae Bae

  • White Privilege

Question 178 of 180

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How many Freudian Psychologists does it take to screw in a light bulb?

Select one of the following:

  • Two. One to screw in the light bulb and one to hold the penis...I mean ladder!

  • I know, I know, i'm hilarious!

Question 179 of 180

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Schrodinger's cat walks into a bar...

Select one of the following:

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I am totally and completely prepared for this final.

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Counseling Theories I & II Final Exam Study Quiz

fearerless
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

All questions from chapter quizzes (4-13)*, the practice final exam, and the pre-test we took at the beginning of the semester. *I only included a select amount of questions from chapters 6-8 from last semester.

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fearerless
Created by fearerless over 1 year ago
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