Renal Failure

Question 1 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Select one of the following:

  • glomerulus

  • nephron

  • medulla

  • cortex

Question 2 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Which part of the nephron is mainly responsible for regulating the concentration of urine?

Select one of the following:

  • Distal tubule

  • Proximal tubule

  • Loop of Henle

  • Collecting duct

Question 3 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Which hormone is required for the reabsorption of water in the collecting tubule?

Select one of the following:

  • Renin

  • Angiotensin

  • ADH

  • ANP

Question 4 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What is the main solute that is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?

Select one of the following:

  • potassium K

  • sodium chloride NaCl

  • hydrogen H

  • urea

Question 5 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Which hormones serve to increase blood pressure? Select all.

Select one or more of the following:

  • angiotensin

  • aldosterone

  • Renin

  • ADH

  • epinephrine

  • norepinephrine

Question 6 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What is the net outward pressure that influences glomerular filtration?

Select one of the following:

  • 20 mmHg

  • 10 mmHg

  • 15 mmHg

  • 5 mmHg

Question 7 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Which hormone is produced by the nephrons?

Select one of the following:

  • Renin

  • ADH

  • ANP

  • Epinephrine

Question 8 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Up to __% of renal function can be lost before renal failure is noticeable.

Select one of the following:

  • 80%

  • 75%

  • 20%

  • 50%

Question 9 of 40

Medal-premium 1

60-70% of acute renal failure is caused by which type of failure?

Select one of the following:

  • Pre-renal failure

  • Intra-renal failure

  • Post-renal failure

Question 10 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Pre-renal failure is caused by what?

Select one of the following:

  • Renal hypo-perfusion

  • Obstruction to the urinary tract

  • Acute tubular necrosis

  • Glomerulonephritis

Question 11 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Check off all possible causes of post-renal failure.

Select one or more of the following:

  • renal calculi

  • ureteral stricture

  • benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • dehydration

  • cardiogenic shock

  • glomerulonephritis

  • pyelonephritis

Question 12 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Check off all possible causes of intra-renal failure.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Acute tubular necrosis

  • glomerulonephritis

  • pyelonephritis

  • nephrotic syndrome

  • ureteral stricture

  • cardiogenic shock

Question 13 of 40

Medal-premium 1

90% of intra-renal failure is caused by which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • Acute tubular necrosis

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Pyelonephritis

  • Nephrotic syndrome

Question 14 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Acute tubular necrosis (intra-renal failure) is caused by which of the following? Select all.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Prolonged renal ischemia from pre-renal failure

  • Exposure to nephrotoxic drugs

  • Intratubular obstruction (e.g. muscle trauma - release of myoglobin)

  • An immunologic disorder causing glomerular inflammation

Question 15 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Proteinuria and hematuria, two main symptoms of glomerulonephritis, are caused by what?

Select one of the following:

  • Entrapment in the glomerulus of antigen-antibody complexes produced in response to an infection

  • Prolonged renal ischemia from pre-renal failure

  • Nephrotoxic drugs, such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and radiologic contrast media

  • Baroreceptor-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system

Question 16 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Loss of transport proteins is part of the process of nephrotic syndrome. What is the result of this loss?

Select one of the following:

  • Decreased Vitamin D and thyroxine

  • Increased filtration of plasma proteins

  • Renal ischemia

  • Intratubular obstruction

Question 17 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Pyelonephritis is caused by which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • Bacterial infection

  • Nephrotoxic drugs

  • Intratubular obstruction

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Question 18 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Women and the elderly are at higher risk for which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Pyelonephritis

  • Acute tubular necrosis

  • Pre-renal failure

Question 19 of 40

Medal-premium 1

In which stage of acute renal failure would you expect to see the following: renal flow at 25% of normal, decreased O2 saturation, decreased urine output, and increased Na in urine?

Select one of the following:

  • Initiating stage

  • Oliguric-anuric stage

  • Diuretic stage

  • Recovery stage

Question 20 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Does increased urine output happen early or late in the process of acute renal failure?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Early

  • Late

Question 21 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Select all signs and symptoms of acute uremia.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Hypokalemia

  • Increased BUN

  • Pruritus

  • Potential anemia

  • Hyperventilation

  • Thrombosis

Question 22 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What are the leading causes of chronic renal failure?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Nephrotoxic drugs

  • Recurrent urinary tract infections

  • Diabetes

  • Hypertension

  • Glomerulonephritis

Question 23 of 40

Medal-premium 1

A patient presents with the following: mild anemia, increased BUN and serum creatinine, and nocturia. This patient is in which stage of chronic renal failure?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Reduced renal reserve

  • Renal insufficiency

  • Renal failure

  • ESRD

Question 24 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, and hyperphosphatemia are all signs of which stage of chronic renal failure?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Reduced renal reserve

  • Renal insufficiency

  • Renal failure

  • ESRD

Question 25 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Renal osteodystrophies is a clinical manifestation of chronic renal failure. What is the cause of this manifestation?

Select one of the following:

  • Impaired vitamin D synthesis

  • Metabolic acidosis

  • Negative nitrogen balance due to high protein breakdown

  • Decreased platelet activity

Question 26 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Are thyroid hormones low or high in chronic kidney disease?

Select one of the following:

  • High

  • Low

Question 27 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Select all appropriate therapeutic interventions for a patient with chronic kidney disease.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Supplemental vitamin D

  • High potassium diet

  • ACE inhibitors

  • Dialysis

Question 28 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Which symptom is common throughout ALL stages of chronic kidney disease?

Select one of the following:

  • Hyperphosphatemia

  • Anemia

  • HTN

  • Hyperkalemia

Question 29 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Select all possible causes of decreased pH of the urine.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Diabetes

  • Starvation

  • UTI

  • Consumption of citrus

Question 30 of 40

Medal-premium 1

Select all possible causes of a decrease in specific gravity of the urine.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Renal failure

  • Pyelonephritis

  • Dehydration

  • UTI

  • Acute tubular necrosis

  • Excessive fluid intake

Question 31 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What are the normal values of urine pH?

Select one of the following:

  • 4.8-8.0

  • 4.0-6.0

  • 2.0-3.8

  • 6.0-9.0

Question 32 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What are the normal ranges of specific gravity of urine?

Select one of the following:

  • 4.8-8.0

  • 1.025-1.032

  • 1.0-2.0

  • 1.020-1.045

Question 33 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What is the normal range of BUN?

Select one of the following:

  • 10-20 mg/dL

  • 10-20 mg/mL

  • 15-30 mg/dL

  • 20-25 mg/mL

Question 34 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What is the normal range of creatinine clearance?

Select one of the following:

  • 0.7-1.5 mg/dL

  • 0.8-2.0 mg/dL

  • 0.7-1.0 mg/mL

  • 0.5-1.5 mg/mL

Question 35 of 40

Medal-premium 1

The rate of _____ clearance is directly proportional to the rate of filtration of water and solutes across the glomerular membrane.

Select one of the following:

  • Inulin

  • Creatinine

  • Urea

  • Sodium

Question 36 of 40

Medal-premium 1

The GFR is directly related to:

Select one of the following:

  • Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries

  • Diffusion rate in the renal cortex

  • Diffusion rate in the renal medulla

  • Glomerular active transport

Question 37 of 40

Medal-premium 1

What force(s) creates passive transport of water in the proximal tubule?

Select one of the following:

  • Peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure

  • Peritubular capillary oncotic and osmotic pressures

  • Interstitial hydrostatic pressure

  • Interstitial oncotic and osmotic pressures

Question 38 of 40

Medal-premium 1

______ is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the kidneys.

Select one of the following:

  • Erythropoietin

  • ADH

  • ANP

  • Aldosterone

Question 39 of 40

Medal-premium 1

A patient exhibits symptoms including hematuria with RBC casts and proteinuria exceeding 3-5 g/day, with albumin as the major protein. These data suggests the presence of which disorder?

Select one of the following:

  • Cystitis

  • Chronic pyelonephritis

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Nephrotic syndrome

Question 40 of 40

Medal-premium 1

How are glucose and insulin used to treat hyperkalemia associated with acute renal failure?

Select one of the following:

  • Glucose has an osmotic effect, which attracts water and sodium, resulting in more dilute blood and a lower potassium concentration.

  • When insulin transports glucose into the cell, it also carries potassium with it.

  • Potassium attaches to receptors on the cell membrane of glucose and is carried into the cell.

  • Increasing insulin causes ketoacidosis, which causes potassium to move into the cell in exchange for hydrogen.

Icon_fullscreen

Renal Failure

Ashling Ligate
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

Practice quiz for renal failure.

Eye 191
Pin 1
Balloon-left 0
Ashling Ligate
Created by Ashling Ligate over 1 year ago
Close