What does the hypothalamus regulate?
Food and water intake
Name outputs from the hypothalamus.
Hormones that cause release of pituitary hormones.
Autonomic nervous system activity via brainstem
Emotional output via the limbic system
Sensory receptors in the viscera
Name inputs to the hypothalamus
Sensory receptors from the viscera
Sensory receptors within the hypothalamus
Hormones (pituitary gland)
Motor (motor cortex)
The preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus contains structures that are associated with what functions?
Nuclei concerned with set-points
Suprachiasmatic nucleus to do with circadian rhythms
Mammillary body to do with recollective memory
The arcuate nucleus to do with feeding
The posterior hypothalamus contains structures that are associated with what functions?
The periventricular zone of the hypothalamus contains structures that are associated with what functions?
Arcuate nucleus (feeding)
Paraventricular nucleus (hormone release into posterior pituitary)
Supraoptic nuclei that release hormones into the posterior pituitary
Mammillary body that is to do with recollective memory
The medial zone of the hypothalamus contains structures that are associated with what functions?
Paraventricular nucleus to do with releasing hormones into the posterior pituitary and also feeding
Arcuate nucleus to do with feeding
The lateral zone of the hypothalamus contains structures that are associated with what functions?
Lateral hypothalamic area to do with feeding
The paraventricular nucleus to do with feeding
On the following diagram of the hypothalamus, what does the green question mark show?
On the following diagram of the hypothalamus, what does the red question mark show?
On the following diagram of the hypothalamus, what does the blue question mark show?
On the following diagram of the hypothalamus, what does the purple question mark show?
What are the three main functions of the hypothalamus?
Autonomic nervous system function
Exteroreceptors and Interoreceptors input to the hypothalamus via the ANS which monitor the internal and external body environments respectively.
Outputs of the hypothalamus to the ANS go via the brain stem and give rise to the SNS and PNS.
The hypothalamus is linked directly to both the anterior and posterior pituitary gland.
Neurohormones released from axonal projections from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary travel directly into the bloodstream and into the circulation.
Name two hypothalamic inputs that would monitor short-term behavioural aspects
Glucose receptors - detect glucose levels
Mechanoreceptors - detect how full you are
Metaboreceptors - detect how full you are by the accumulation of metabolites at a site
Baroreceptors - detect how full you are by pressure on the walls
Leptin is a hormone released from
Leptin acts on the hypothalamus to result in what effects?
Increased metabolic rate (via pituitary and ANS)
Decreased feeding behaviour (limbic system)
Decreased metabolic rate (via pituitary and ANS)
Increased feeding behaviour (limbic system)
The arcuate nucleus contains a high density of leptin receptors.
What is the purple structure seen on the coronal section of the hypothalamus?
What is the function of the paraventricular nucleus in response to signalling from the purple structure?
Tells you when you've had enough to eat
Tells you to when to eat
What is the function of the lateral hypothalamic area in response to signalling from the purple structure?
What three functions can hypothalamic thermoreceptors co-ordinate?
Autonomic - vasodilat/cont
Behavioural - shivering/sweating/panting
Endocrine - increase/decrease metabolism
Autonomic - sweating/shivering
Endocrine - vasodilat/cont
The anterior hypothalamus contains temperature-sensitive neurons that can change their firing rate depending upon if the temperature is hot/cold.
Pyrexia is a return to the normal temperature set-point in the hypothalamus.
What three reproductive functions (behavioural) does the hypothalamus have?
Autonomic - sexual organs - point and shoot
Endocrine - puberty
Behavioural - attraction
Autonomic - puberty
Endocrine - attraction