What is the purpose of the affarent division of the PNS?
What are the 2 types of afferent information?
What info is sent from visceral afferent divisions? Is is consciously percieved?
What info is brought in by the sensory afferent division of the PNS? (2)
What is perception?
Why isn't perception always accurate? (3)
What causes optical illusions?
What are receptors?
How do receptors detect and conduct stimuli?
Name the 6 types of receptors and what they are responsible for.Give an example of each.
Name 4 types of receptors found beneath the skin. Are they found in the epidermis or the dermis layer?
Why is sensory input from receptors useful? (4)
Describe how the membrane permeability of a receptor changes when its stimulated by info.
What does the magnitude of the receptor potential represent?
Where are action potentials generated within a neuron for:
- afferent N
What is adaptation?
What are the 2 types of receptors in accordance to their speed of adaptation?
What is an example of a tonic and phasic receptor?
What are somatosensory pathways?
What's the difference between 1st, 2nd, 3rd order neurons? Where are they located?
What is "phantom pain"? Why does it occur?
What is acuity? What are the 2 factors that influence it?
What is pain? What type of receptors are associated with pain?
What factors influence pain? (3)
What is the difference between acute and chronic pain?
List 4 characteristics of each.
What are prostaglandins? What do they do?
What are the two pain neurotransmitters associated with the Afferent division of the PNS?
What is Substance P, and what does it do?
What is glutamate, and what does it do?
What is the analgesic system? What kind of proteins does it need in order to function?
Trace the pathway of pain perception from the noxious stimulus to the somatosensory cortex, without being stopped by analgesic pathways.
Where does the analgesic pathway stop pain information?
Name the 4 protective mechanisms of the eye
Name and describe the 3 tissue layers of the eye.
What is refraction?
What creates refraction within the eye? How?
What is on either side of the visual spectrum on the energy wavelength continuum?
What is accommodation?
What part of the eye does this?
How do cateracts happen?
How does light refract onto the retina in focus and out of focus?
When is Emmentropia?
What is myopia?
What is hyperopia?
What are the 3 layers of the RETINA?
Explain retinal visual processing and how it faces backward, from the time light passes into the retina until it reaches the optic nerve.
Why are eyes red after camera flash?
What is the Fovea? Where is it found?