Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the body or from other nutrients. Non-essential nutrients can be synthesized in the body or found in alternative sources.
Primary causes of malnutrition are related to specific diseases and conditions, such as Chron's, celiac, and cancer. Secondary causes of malnutrition are related to social and geographic factors, such as social habits, income, and stress.
Which lab value is the best indicator of nutrition?
Total lymphocyte count
Which type of severe acute malnutrition occurs in places in the world where starchy foods are the main staple?
Select the correct signs and symptoms of Kwashiorkor from the list below.
Decreased muscle mass
Changes in skin pigment
Hair lightens and thins, may become red and brittle
Child is hyper-alert and ravenously hungry
What is "Russell's sign"?
Abrasion on the dorsal hand surface from forced vomiting
Parotid gland and submandibular gland enlargement due to vomiting
Dental erosion due to frequent vomiting
High cortisol and growth hormone levels due to starvation
Which of the following statements most accurately describes obesity?
Obesity is usually caused by endocrine and metabolic disturbances
Obesity is a generalized, excessive accumulation of fat in subcutaneous and other tissues
BMI and waist circumference are not very useful measurements in assessing the risk of developing health problems from being overweight. It is better to use blood lab values.
The priority in treating obesity is to treat vitamin deficiencies, dehydration and associated infections
Which of the following describes the role of Vitamin A?
A fat soluble vitamin that promotes vision, bone and tissue growth and is important in the immune and reproductive systems.
A water soluble vitamin that promotes vision, bone and tissue growth and is important in the immune and reproductive systems.
A fat soluble vitamin that is an antioxidant and plays an important role in the immune system.
A fat soluble vitamin that plays an essential role in blood clotting.
Which vitamin is an antioxidant, an important factor in collagen formation, important in metabolism, interacts with folic acid (B9), and assists in iron absorption?
Deficiency of vitamin A is most directly associated with which of the following?
A client diagnosed with anemia who is being treated with iron replacement therapy is not responding to clinical treatment. The client reports tingling and parathesias of the extremities. Which of the following might account for this poor response to therapy?
Client compliance with iron replacement therapy
Underlying medical condition of diabetes that is complicating course of treatment
Client may also have vitamin B12 deficiency that may account for presentation of neuropathy symptoms
Client may be taking vitamin C supplements that may account for presentation of neuropathy symptoms
A client who abuses alcohol presents with significant mental status changes and loss of balance. Which vitamin deficiency would you suspect as the possible cause of this presentation?
The nurse suspects which clinical nutrient deficiency in a client who has developed osteoporosis?
Which of the following consequences would the nurse anticipate noting in a client who has had prolonged carbohydrate deficiency?
Breakdown of proteins, leading to ketosis and metabolic acidosis
Anemia, weight loss, and edema
Skin lesions and weight loss
Dental caries and obesity
How would you explain to a client why vitamins are needed for the metabolism of nutrients?
"Vitamins are needed because they provide additional energy sources."
"Vitamins are needed because they participate as enzymes in metabolic processes."
"Vitamins are needed to supply additional calories."
"Vitamins are needed in large quantities in order to prevent oxidation of vital nutrients."
A client suffered major trauma in an auto accident and has been having difficulty healing wounds. A deficiency of which of the following micronutrients is the most likely cause?
Which of the following statements is true about cancer cachexia?
It is no different than simple starvation because the metabolic rate declines in response to tumour growth.
It occurs as a result of chemotherapy but not radiation.
It occurs as a result of tumour-induced changes
It is only seen in clients who have limited caloric intake.