1920-1952. movement that formed Mexico's national identity. Samuel Ramos was the first modern student. Published examen (magazine) in 1932 that discussed the meaning of Lo Mexicano. tried to get away from the Castas system. Created traditions like the quincenera, virgen de guadalupe, Grito de Dolores (flag waving on independence day). turned history of Mexico to a more positive view. turned race relations worse between whites and chinese.
1605-1695. Quilombo = runaway slave community. in North East Brazil. Europeans saw them as a danger to the colonial system. most famous. large, long lived, politically complex. 11,000 - 30,000 inhabitants. leader named Zumbi who was seen as the first black hero against slavery. inhabited by runaway slaves, african descendants born in Brazil, and white people from different backgrounds. Portuguese and dutch saw them as barbarians and burned it down from 1694-1695 in an expedition. because of this very little primary sources still exist because they were all burned.
a new race created by Jose Vasconcelos in 1925. after the Mexican revolution. Wanted Latin Americans to avoid imitating the United States. New race combined of the virtues of Indians and Europeans. New race would be a world leader in the years ahead. Aesthetic era - marriage for love. Mestizo is distinct and hybrid. White domination is only temporary and is viewed as a bridge to the new world. Era where mixed races is embraced. "fifth race" has blood from all parts of the earth, therefore it is superior.
#1 enemy of the Mexican government. bad gang/cartel in Mexico. by far the most brutal. hire mostly military or ex military men. involved in the drug trade, human trafficking, pirating and many more illegal activities. trained by the US. based in Nuevo Loredo. The most wealthy cartel. Formed in the late 1990s. used to be part of the Gulf Cartel, but they split. In the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, lots of police corruption there. The police are paid less so they are easier to bribe.
young mexican soldier who was convicted and executed for the raping and murdering of an 8 yr old girl in Tijuana in 1938. executed by ley fuga (shot in the back while he tried to run away) After he died it was discovered that he was framed by his superior officer. paranormal activity around his grave (voices, and blood seeping). story of his innocence spread and people began placing stones and candles on his grave. viewed as a good omen. turned into a folk saint that helped Mexicans cross the border. "ayudame a cruzar"
1830-1915. President of Mexico from 1876-1911. Wanted to modernize mexico and understood that they had to get along with the US. paid off 3 million dollars in claims to the US. Created the border patrol. Gave people his personal guarantee. encouraged people to invest in Mexico. Make money at the expense of the lower classes. Make money in mining. used violence to surpress lower classes and wages. rented mines to the US. "Selling patrimony to the gringos" created railroad system. tried to curb violence in Mexico by beefing up the rural police. Created ley fuga. his time in office was seen as the golden age of bandits. Wanted to get rid of indians by ley lerdo which took indian and church land. made indians change into "normal" clothes. believe that whiteness would improve the indian race. corrupt government. uprising against 1910 election. began the Mexican revolution.
created in 19th century. A woman named Mirra was born to a noble family in India and was captured and taken to San Juan. renamed Catarina. became the ideal type of woman in Mexico. European did not like them because they thought they were more beautiful. A woman very comfortable in her sexuality. part of the costumbrismo today. type of dress with a white blouse, embroidered green and red skirts. tourist trap. catarina de san juan named a saint in mexico until the catholic church said no.
1882-1954. installed as dictator of Brazil by the military in 1930. served one democratically eelected term from 1951-1954. favored nationalism, indsutrialization, centralization, social welfare and populism. nicknamed "father of the poor" bc he was a supporter of workers rights. his ascent marked the end of the coffee with milk politics in brazil. Created a new constitution in 1934 that gave women the right to vote, legalized labor unions. committed suicide in 1954.
1895-1974. Minister of Labor for Argentina during WW2. Became president of Argentina in 1946. Married lower class woman named Evita and cemented relations between upper and lower class. they were seen as icons and were basically a team. supported descamisados (working class). created the Juan Peron foundation that gave out charity that was basically propaganda. bunch of social reform, gave women the right to vote, legalized prostitution, got rid of hija natural laws. Agriculture bore the brunt of most of his plans. 1952, eva died. 1955, military rises up against him and he is exiled to Spain. Still has massive support in Argentina (blank votes, urban warfare) 1973, Peron allowed to come back to Argentina and becomes president. Has a new wife named Isabel, who he names vice president of Argentina. dies in 1974, leaving Isabel as the first female head of state. 1976 military takes back power because Isabel is crazy and they keep it until 1983.
Argentinian folk saint. went into the desert with her baby in seaarch of her husband and died but the baby stayed alive by suckling her breast milk. 1898 Flavellos lost 500 cattle, found her tomb, prayed to her, found his cattle. legends of her spread by cattle drivers and other travelers. made shrines along highways. offerings include water bottles, license plates. Myth evolved through out the years. 1898 cattle miracle, 1920-1940 miraculous breast appears, 1946 goes into the desert to avoid sexual transgression, 1960s turns it into marianismo and was created by the mostly priest male-led committee that created her shrine. today 4 versions of the myth exist. miraculous breast, suggestion of MB, child sucking futilely at dry breast, last has god bless it and allow the child to be saved.