Prather Test 1

Question 1 of 45

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The doctrine of specific nerve energies proposed by Johannes Muller holds that:

Select one of the following:

  • perceptual experiences are based on where information goes in the brain

  • language production is located in the left frontal lobes

  • the speed of nerve conduction is around 90 feet per second

  • reflexes involve a stimulus and a specific motor response

Question 2 of 45

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The processes by which inherited traits confer advantages to a species and allow that species to survive and reproduce would be:

Select one of the following:

  • fitness pressures

  • Lamarkian forces

  • natural selection

  • Mendelian hallmarks

Question 3 of 45

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What are the two kinds of cells in the nervous system?

Select one of the following:

  • neurons and glia

  • dendrites and axons

  • ribosomes and lysosomes

  • neurons and axons

Question 4 of 45

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The belief that only the physical reality exists and there is no such thing as a mind is:

Select one of the following:

  • dualism

  • materialism monism

  • mentalistic monism

  • Descartism

Question 5 of 45

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The output of information from a neuron would be performed by which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • dendrites

  • soma

  • axon

  • mitochondria

Question 6 of 45

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The presynaptic membrane could also be called:

Select one of the following:

  • a dendrite

  • a nucleus

  • a vesicle

  • a terminal button

Question 7 of 45

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Someone who suffers from a disorder in which they cannot perceive anything specifically on the left side of their environment most likely suffers from

Select one of the following:

  • a split brain operation

  • unilateral neglect

  • damage to premotor cortex

  • blindsight

Question 8 of 45

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Consciousness is:

Select one of the following:

  • easily located anatomically in the brain

  • biologically a single neural structure

  • show in the research to be more than merely the physical properties of the brain

  • a complex, multilevel system of information processing in the brain

Question 9 of 45

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The organelles within a cell which contain enzymes used to chemically break down waste products are the:

Select one of the following:

  • mitochondria

  • lyzosomes

  • ribosomes

  • plasma membranes

Question 10 of 45

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The place in a cell responsible for directly making proteins would be the:

Select one of the following:

  • mitochondria

  • endoplasmic reticula

  • ribosomes

  • plasma membranes

Question 11 of 45

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Which function is NOT performed by glia?

Select one of the following:

  • providing a structural archetecture

  • building myelin sheaths

  • binding post-synaptic receptors

  • guiding the growth of axons

Question 12 of 45

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Which type of glia is primarily responsible for the myelin sheaths around axons in the central nervous system of the body?

Select one of the following:

  • astrocytes

  • Schwann cells

  • oligodendrocytes

  • radial glia

Question 13 of 45

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The small spaces between myelin sheaths are:

Select one of the following:

  • nodes of Ranvier

  • Cartesian points

  • synapses

  • cytoskeletal junctions

Question 14 of 45

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Which of the following would flow easily across the cell membrane?

Select one of the following:

  • large fat insoluble molecules

  • charged ions

  • DNA

  • water

Question 15 of 45

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Which organelle is responsible for making molecules of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?

Select one of the following:

  • mitochondria

  • lyzosomes

  • ribosomes

  • nucleolus

Question 16 of 45

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How do chemicals that cannot flow freely across a cell membrane enter a neuron?

Select one of the following:

  • through a Golgi complex

  • through specialized protein channels

  • through the endoplasmic reticulum

  • through gaps in the myelin sheath

Question 17 of 45

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How many axons does the typical human neuron have?

Select one of the following:

  • 0

  • 1

  • many

  • exactly 2

Question 18 of 45

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What is the insulating material that covers some axons?

Select one of the following:

  • a bouton

  • a myelin sheath

  • an axonic spine

  • an intrinsic neuron

Question 19 of 45

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The primary function of the myelin sheaths is to:

Select one of the following:

  • increase speed of conduction

  • increase surface area

  • increase metabolism

  • decrease active transport

Question 20 of 45

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Which of the following best represent how ions are distributed in/around neurons?

Select one of the following:

  • Na+ ions are more concentrated inside and K+ ions are more concentrated outside.

  • K+ ions are more concentrated inside and Na+ ions are more concentrated outside.

  • Na+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and K+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.

  • K+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and Na+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.

Question 21 of 45

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The electrical gradient (only) for Potassium when a neuron is at rest tends to:

Select one of the following:

  • draw potassium into the cell

  • push potassium out of the cell

  • push sodium out of the cell

  • push chloride out of the cell

Question 22 of 45

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The primary mechanism by which the blood brain barrier prevents certain chemicals from entering the neural tissue is:

Select one of the following:

  • by limiting the access to the nodes of Ranvier

  • by using thick layers of myelin around nerve cells

  • by limiting the gaps between the cellular lining of the capillaries

  • by thickening the membranes of neurons

Question 23 of 45

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An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip. These are known as:

Select one of the following:

  • afferent axons

  • efferent axons

  • intrinsic neurons

  • terminal endfeet

Question 24 of 45

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When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules has both forces pushing it in the same direction?

Select one of the following:

  • potassium

  • sodium

  • water

  • carbon dioxide

Question 25 of 45

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The typical voltage difference across the membrane of a neuron at rest is about:

Select one of the following:

  • -30mV

  • +35mV

  • +70mV

  • -70mV

Question 26 of 45

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What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a potential slightly closer to zero?

Select one of the following:

  • hyperpolarization

  • depolarization

  • selective permeability

  • a refractory period

Question 27 of 45

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Under normal conditions the sodium-potassium transporter (pump) moves:

Select one of the following:

  • 2 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.

  • 3 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.

  • 3 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 2 K+ ions it moves in.

  • 2 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves in.

Question 28 of 45

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A membrane produces an action potential whenever the potential across it reaches:

Select one of the following:

  • the resting potential

  • threshold

  • the -90 mV

  • the refractory period

Question 29 of 45

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What tends to open the electrically-gated (voltage-dependent) potassium channels across a neuron's membrane?

Select one of the following:

  • hyperpolarization of the membrane

  • depolarization of the membrane

  • increase in the sodium concentration outside of the neuron

  • the opening of Ca++ channels after the peak of an action potential

Question 30 of 45

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Stimulus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. Stimulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. What can we expect to happen?

Select one of the following:

  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential that is conducted faster than A.

  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential of greater magnitude than A.

  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential, but stimulus A will not.

  • Stimulus A and stimulus B will produce the same response in the neuron.

Question 31 of 45

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When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules crosses through it MOST slowly?

Select one of the following:

  • potassium

  • sodium

  • water

  • carbon dioxide

Question 32 of 45

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Which of the following is true about excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs)?

Select one of the following:

  • They are a form of metabotropic effect.

  • They occur because chemically gated sodium channels open.

  • They occur because chemically gated chloride channels open.

  • They occur because potassium exits the postsynaptic cell.

Question 33 of 45

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Which movement of the ions would hyperpolarize the membrane of a neuron which is already slightly depolarized?

Select one of the following:

  • sodium ions into the cell

  • chloride ions into the cell

  • potassium ions into the cell

  • chloride ions out of the cell

Question 34 of 45

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Just after the peak of the action potential, what movement of ions restores the membrane to approximately the resting potential?

Select one of the following:

  • Sodium ions enter the cell.

  • Potassium ions enter the cell.

  • Potassium ions leave the cell.

  • Sodium ions travel down the axon.

Question 35 of 45

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Which of the following is an indolamine?

Select one of the following:

  • tyrosine

  • serotonin

  • norepinephrine

  • dopamine

Question 36 of 45

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All of the following are ways that a neuroactive drug can affect the amount of neurotransmitter at the synapse, except:

Select one of the following:

  • increasing the availability of substrates to produce neurotransmitters

  • increasing the enzymatic degradation of neurotransmitters

  • blocking cAMP effects derived from metabotropic receptors

  • blocking the enzyme choline acetyl transferase

Question 37 of 45

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What is the name of the enzyme which makes acetylcholine from its precursors?

Select one of the following:

  • acetylcholine esterase

  • choline acetyl transferase

  • dopa decarboxylase

  • monoamine oxidase

Question 38 of 45

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What happens after a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic cell?

Select one of the following:

  • It causes calcium to rush into the presynaptic neuron.

  • It causes calcium to rush into the postsynaptic neuron.

  • The neurotransmitter spreads across the synaptic gap based on diffusion.

  • The neurotransmitter is actively transported across the synaptic cleft.

Question 39 of 45

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Which amino acid is one of the precursors to dopamine in the brain?

Select one of the following:

  • phenylalanine

  • aspartate

  • tryptophan

  • glutamate

Question 40 of 45

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The enzyme that directly makes Dopa (DA) from tyrosine is:

Select one of the following:

  • tyrosine hydroxylase

  • tryptophan hydroxylase

  • dopa decarboxylase

  • choline acetyl transferase

Question 41 of 45

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A drug that reduces or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter at the receptor would be a(n):

Select one of the following:

  • direct agonist

  • indirect agonist

  • direct antagonist

  • indirect antagonist

Question 42 of 45

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What would be the effect of a drug that inhibits that enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE)?

Select one of the following:

  • It would prolong the action of acetylcholine at its synapses.

  • It would decrease the duration of action of acetylcholine at its synapses.

  • It would decrease the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.

  • It would increase the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.

Question 43 of 45

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Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and Mono-Amine Oxidase (MAO) are:

Select one of the following:

  • enzymes that convert catecholamines into inactive chemicals.

  • enzymes that make catecholamines.

  • neurotransmitters in the same group as serotonin.

  • the inactive fragments of catecholamines.

Question 44 of 45

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Reuptake is the process of:

Select one of the following:

  • recycling of neurotransmitters

  • enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters

  • absorption of neurotransmitter by the postsynaptic neuron

  • re-release of neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neurons

Question 45 of 45

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Muscarine is a:

Select one of the following:

  • indirect DA agonist

  • direct DA agonist

  • direct ACh agonist

  • indirect ACh antagonist

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Prather Test 1

cepa2k7
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

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