The doctrine of specific nerve energies proposed by Johannes Muller holds that:
perceptual experiences are based on where information goes in the brain
language production is located in the left frontal lobes
the speed of nerve conduction is around 90 feet per second
reflexes involve a stimulus and a specific motor response
The processes by which inherited traits confer advantages to a species and allow that species to survive and reproduce would be:
What are the two kinds of cells in the nervous system?
neurons and glia
dendrites and axons
ribosomes and lysosomes
neurons and axons
The belief that only the physical reality exists and there is no such thing as a mind is:
The output of information from a neuron would be performed by which of the following?
The presynaptic membrane could also be called:
a terminal button
Someone who suffers from a disorder in which they cannot perceive anything specifically on the left side of their environment most likely suffers from
a split brain operation
damage to premotor cortex
easily located anatomically in the brain
biologically a single neural structure
show in the research to be more than merely the physical properties of the brain
a complex, multilevel system of information processing in the brain
The organelles within a cell which contain enzymes used to chemically break down waste products are the:
The place in a cell responsible for directly making proteins would be the:
Which function is NOT performed by glia?
providing a structural archetecture
building myelin sheaths
binding post-synaptic receptors
guiding the growth of axons
Which type of glia is primarily responsible for the myelin sheaths around axons in the central nervous system of the body?
The small spaces between myelin sheaths are:
nodes of Ranvier
Which of the following would flow easily across the cell membrane?
large fat insoluble molecules
Which organelle is responsible for making molecules of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
How do chemicals that cannot flow freely across a cell membrane enter a neuron?
through a Golgi complex
through specialized protein channels
through the endoplasmic reticulum
through gaps in the myelin sheath
How many axons does the typical human neuron have?
What is the insulating material that covers some axons?
a myelin sheath
an axonic spine
an intrinsic neuron
The primary function of the myelin sheaths is to:
increase speed of conduction
increase surface area
decrease active transport
Which of the following best represent how ions are distributed in/around neurons?
Na+ ions are more concentrated inside and K+ ions are more concentrated outside.
K+ ions are more concentrated inside and Na+ ions are more concentrated outside.
Na+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and K+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.
K+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and Na+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.
The electrical gradient (only) for Potassium when a neuron is at rest tends to:
draw potassium into the cell
push potassium out of the cell
push sodium out of the cell
push chloride out of the cell
The primary mechanism by which the blood brain barrier prevents certain chemicals from entering the neural tissue is:
by limiting the access to the nodes of Ranvier
by using thick layers of myelin around nerve cells
by limiting the gaps between the cellular lining of the capillaries
by thickening the membranes of neurons
An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip. These are known as:
When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules has both forces pushing it in the same direction?
The typical voltage difference across the membrane of a neuron at rest is about:
What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a potential slightly closer to zero?
a refractory period
Under normal conditions the sodium-potassium transporter (pump) moves:
2 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.
3 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.
3 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 2 K+ ions it moves in.
2 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves in.
A membrane produces an action potential whenever the potential across it reaches:
the resting potential
the -90 mV
the refractory period
What tends to open the electrically-gated (voltage-dependent) potassium channels across a neuron's membrane?
hyperpolarization of the membrane
depolarization of the membrane
increase in the sodium concentration outside of the neuron
the opening of Ca++ channels after the peak of an action potential
Stimulus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. Stimulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. What can we expect to happen?
Stimulus B will produce an action potential that is conducted faster than A.
Stimulus B will produce an action potential of greater magnitude than A.
Stimulus B will produce an action potential, but stimulus A will not.
Stimulus A and stimulus B will produce the same response in the neuron.
When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules crosses through it MOST slowly?
Which of the following is true about excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs)?
They are a form of metabotropic effect.
They occur because chemically gated sodium channels open.
They occur because chemically gated chloride channels open.
They occur because potassium exits the postsynaptic cell.
Which movement of the ions would hyperpolarize the membrane of a neuron which is already slightly depolarized?
sodium ions into the cell
chloride ions into the cell
potassium ions into the cell
chloride ions out of the cell
Just after the peak of the action potential, what movement of ions restores the membrane to approximately the resting potential?
Sodium ions enter the cell.
Potassium ions enter the cell.
Potassium ions leave the cell.
Sodium ions travel down the axon.
Which of the following is an indolamine?
All of the following are ways that a neuroactive drug can affect the amount of neurotransmitter at the synapse, except:
increasing the availability of substrates to produce neurotransmitters
increasing the enzymatic degradation of neurotransmitters
blocking cAMP effects derived from metabotropic receptors
blocking the enzyme choline acetyl transferase
What is the name of the enzyme which makes acetylcholine from its precursors?
choline acetyl transferase
What happens after a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic cell?
It causes calcium to rush into the presynaptic neuron.
It causes calcium to rush into the postsynaptic neuron.
The neurotransmitter spreads across the synaptic gap based on diffusion.
The neurotransmitter is actively transported across the synaptic cleft.
Which amino acid is one of the precursors to dopamine in the brain?
The enzyme that directly makes Dopa (DA) from tyrosine is:
A drug that reduces or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter at the receptor would be a(n):
What would be the effect of a drug that inhibits that enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE)?
It would prolong the action of acetylcholine at its synapses.
It would decrease the duration of action of acetylcholine at its synapses.
It would decrease the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.
It would increase the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.
Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and Mono-Amine Oxidase (MAO) are:
enzymes that convert catecholamines into inactive chemicals.
enzymes that make catecholamines.
neurotransmitters in the same group as serotonin.
the inactive fragments of catecholamines.
Reuptake is the process of:
recycling of neurotransmitters
enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters
absorption of neurotransmitter by the postsynaptic neuron
re-release of neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neurons
Muscarine is a:
indirect DA agonist
direct DA agonist
direct ACh agonist
indirect ACh antagonist