What are general genes?
What are specialised genes?
How are genes involved in the specialisation of cells?
What is a stem cell?
What are the two main types of stem cell found in humans?
What is the main function of stem cells in adults?
What is a meristem?
What is the order of the 5 zones of apical meristems?
Stem cells have the potential to become _________________________
What is differentiation?
All organisms exhibit ___________
Growth is _____________________
There are ___________ and ___________ meristems
Groups of organs work together to form __________
A tissue is __________________
An organ is composed of _______________
Organ systems are _______________
Mitosis is __________
Variables such as ___________, ___ and _______________ must be controlled when carrying out the tissue culture techniques
Chromosomes contain ____________________
Chromosomes are made from _____________________
The two DNA strands are held together by ________________________
The sequence of the DNA bases encodes information for ____________________
Proteins are built from ________________
The shape of a protein determines its _______________
Enzymes function as ________________ because they speed up the rate of ________________________
Enzymes remain ___________ at the end of a reaction
What is an active site?
Enzymes are _____________
Enzymes are affected by _____________
When an enzyme changes shape, we say it is ________________
Genetic information can be transferred from one cell to another using _____________
Genetic engineering is ______________
What are some examples of use for genetic engineering?
Photosynthesis is ________________
The raw materials needed for photosynthesis are _____________ and ________________
The requirements for photosynthesis are ___________ and _______________
Photosynthesis takes place in the _____________
The first stage of photosynthesis is __________________
During photolysis __________ is trapped by chlorophyll in the chloroplasts and is converted into chemical energy in the form of ________
During photolysis, water is split to produce _____________ and ____________
The second stage of photosynthesis is the __________________
The carbon fixation stage of photosynthesis is a series of ____________________
How is sugar created in the carbon fixation stage of photosynthesis?
The chemical energy in sugar is available for _______________
What is a limiting factor?
Limiting factors of photosynthesis are _________, __________ and ______________
Glucose is a source of __________
Energy released from the breakdown of glucose during respiration is used to synthesise ______ from _____________
The energy made by ADP and Pi can be used by the cell as an energy source for cellular activities such as ____________, _______________, _______________________ and _________________________
In the presence of oxygen, glucose is broken down into ____________. This is further broken down into ___________ and ___________
Where does aerobic respiration begin and end?
The breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen yields ____ molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
What is the fermentation pathway?
Where does the fermentation pathway occur?
In animals: In the absence of oxygen glucose is broken down into __________ , which is further broken down into ______________
In plants and yeast cells: In the absence of oxygen glucose is broken down into ___________, which is further broken down into ________ and _______________
The breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen yields ___ molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
The detail of organelles inside living cells is known as the _____________
What are organelles found in both animal and plant cells?
What is the function of a nucleus?
What is the function of a cell membrane?
What is the function of a cytoplasm?
What is the function of a mitochondrion?
What is the function of a ribosome?
What organelles are only found in plant cells?
What is the function of a cell wall?
What is the function of a vacuole?
What is the function of a chloroplast?