Parenteral administration of drugs describes what?
Percutaneous administration of drugs describes what?
Enteral administration of drugs describes what?
What is an advantage of the parenteral route of administration?
Easy to administer on unconscious patients
Reaches the blood stream first and avoids first pass metabolism
What is an advantage of percutaneous administration of drugs?
Repeated doses of general anaesthetic such as thiopental can cause a fatal dose because of accumulation, or "tissue binding" in adipose tissue.
1st pass metabolism describes what phenomenon?
When the concentration of a drug available to the systemic circulation (it's bioavailability) is significantly reduced because it is metabolised by the liver before it reaches the systemic circulation.
When the concentration of a drug available to the systemic circulation (it's bioavailability) is significantly increased because it is metabolised by the liver before it reaches the systemic circulation.
1st pass metabolism can be useful for activating pre-cursor drugs such as L-dopa into dopamine.
Steady state in pharmacology describes what?
Drug absorption = Drug elimination
Drug absorption > Drug elimination
Drug absorption < Drug elimination
What is the plasma half life of a drug?
The time for half of the drug to be eliminated from the blood
The time it takes for a drug to lose half of its pharmacological activity
What is meant by the hydrophobic effect?
Amino acids with non-polar (hydrophobic) groups arrange themselves on the inside of a protein and vice versa.
Amino acids with non-polar (hydrophilic) groups arrange themselves on the inside of a protein and vice versa.
Amino acids with polar (hydrophobic) groups arrange themselves on the inside of a protein and vice versa.
Amino acids with polar (hydrophilic) groups arrange themselves on the inside of a protein and vice versa.
Haemoglobin in sickle cell is dysfunctional as a result of an incorrect hydrophobic effect.
What is the primary structure of a protein?
Sequence of amino acids
Folding into an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
Folding of a polypeptide chain and addition of prosthetic groups
Many polypeptide chains
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
The two weakly ionising groups of an amino acid are?
With a pKa value of 9.7, and the equation NH3+ -> NH2 + H+ , at pH 9 what species will dominate?
NH2 + H+
What graph correctly depicts the dose response curve?
Response is proportional to occupancy
The maximum response cannot be attained when a competitive reversible antagonist is present.
In the presence of a competitive reversible antagonist, how is the dose response curve shifted?
An irreversible antagonist means that the maximum response can never be reached.
How is the dose response curve shifted in the presence of an irreversible antagonist?
Irreversible antagonists cause a decrease in the maximal response when spare receptors are not present.
Prolonged exposure to a drug reduces the bodies response to it.
Without spare receptors, non-competitive antagonists can reduce the maximal response (Emax).
When a non-competitive antagonist is used in the presence of spare receptors, the dose response curve shifts left.
Non-competitive antagonists do not compete for the agonist binding site.
Irreversible antagonists reduce the number of available receptors.
The dose response curve of an irreversible agonist is shifted down because the maximal response is decreased.
Select common ways that cells regulate their functions via receptors
Altering membrane potential
Altered gene expression in cells
An integral tyrosine kinase can be activated and then phosphorylates a target molecule such as an enzyme.
Lipophobic molecules can cross the PM and NM and bind to steroid receptors e.g. to boost transcription.
G-protein coupled receptors have ATPase activity that turns their activity off.
Cytokine receptors activate JAK that can phosphorylate targets and lead to signal pathways.