Most voluntary movement in a vertebrate body is accomplished by:
Muscles pulsing in waves of contraction to change the shape of the organism
Muscles pushing against bones to force them apart
Muscles pushing against tubes filled with fluid
Muscles pulling bones to bring them closer together
Which statement best reflects how contraction of a muscle fiber is accomplished?
Calcium causes the actin fibers to contract
Calcium causes the myosin fibers to contract
Calcium and ATP cause both actin and myosin fibers to contract
ATP powers a sliding of actin fibers past myosin
How does the smooth muscle of blood vessels, stomach and intestine differ from skeletal muscle?
Smooth muscle is involuntary, skeletal muscle is voluntary
Smooth muscle is voluntary, skeletal muscle is involuntary
Only smooth muscle is controlled by nerve impulses
Skeletal muscle does not use calcium
What sort of a signal causes a skeletal muscle to contract?
An adjacent nerve cell releases an electrical signal
An adjacent nerve cell releases calcium
An adjacent nerve cell releases a chemical neurotransmitter
An adjacent nerve cell releases ATP
How does the circulatory system of a human compare with that of an insect?
The human has a closed system, the insect is open
Both the human and the insect are closed
The human has an open system, the insect is closed
Which of the following systems does not exchange with the circulatory system in vertebrates?
Cells and interstitial fluid
All of these exchange with the circulatory system
Blood from the left ventricle goes:
To the left atrium
To the pulmonary artery and the lung
To the right ventricle
To the aorta and the body
To the right atrium
The bulk of oxygen in the blood is carried
Bound to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
Dissolved in the cytoplasm of the red blood cells
Dissolved in the plasma
Bound to the hemoglobin in the plasma
Compare the speed of liquid flow in capillaries and the aorta
Faster in capillaries because they are narrower
Slower in capillaries because they are narrower
Faster in capillaries because the total diameter of all the capillaries is greater than the diameter of the aorta
Slower in capillaries because the total diameter of all the capillaries is greater than the diameter of the aorta
The same because the total volume of blood is constant
During countercurrent exchange in fish gills, where blood first enters the gills:
Oxygen-rich blood encounters oxygen-poor water
Oxygen-rich blood encounters oxygen-rich water
Oxygen-poor blood encounters oxygen-poor water
Oxygen-poor blood encounters oxygen-rich water
Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood mix together with oxygen-rich water
The air sacks of the lung where gas exchange takes place are called:
Essential amino acids are
Those that are present in all body proteins
Those that are the most abundant in the body
Those that the body synthesizes
Those the body uses most
Those the body can not synthesize
Given an equal serving weight
Carbohydrates have more calories than fats
Fats have more calories than carbohydrates
Fats and carbohydrates have the same calorie content
The digestion of starch begins
In the mouth
In the stomach
In the duodenum
In the small intestine
In the large intestine
The pH of the stomach is:
Neutral (pH about 7)
How is glucose concentration in the blood regulated?
When the concentration is high, insulin causes glucose to be removed from the blood
When the concentration is low, insulin causes glucose to be removed from the blood
When the concentration is high, insulin causes glucose to be added to the blood
When the concentration is low, insulin causes glucose to be added to the blood
What mechanisms are not used in the production of urine by the mammalian kidney?
Reabsorption of water
Selective reabsorption of salts
All of these are used in the production of urine
In most circumstances, how does the solute (salts and urea) concentration of mammalian urine in the bladder compare with that of blood entering the kidney?
The solute concentration in the urine is higher
The solute concentration in the urine is lower
The solute concentration in the urine is about the same as in the blood
Which of the following pathways is the most common in the nervous system?
Sensory neuron --> motor neuron --> interneuron
Sensory neuron --> interneuron --> motor neuron
Motor neuron --> sensory neuron --> interneuron
Motor neuron --> interneuron --> sensory neuron
Interneuron --> sensory neuron --> motor neuron
What is the correct path for the flow of the signal in a single neuron?
Synaptic terminal (release neurotransmitter) --> dendrite --> axon
Axon --> synaptic terminal (release neurotransmitter) --> dendrive
Synaptic terminal (release neurotransmitter) --> axon --> dendrite
Dendrite --> synaptic terminal (release neurotransmitter) --> axon
Dendrite --> axon --> synaptic terminal (release neurotransmitter)
Nervous signals are carried along the axon by a wave of depolarization and between nerve cells by neurotransmitters
Automatic functions like breathing and digestion are controlled by the
Which of the following is NOT true concerning steroid hormones?
Testosterone and estrogen are examples
The receptors for them are within the target cell
They are composed of animo acids and the receptors are on the cell surface
THeir ultimate purpose is to activate transcription of specific genes
They are related to cholesterol in structure
Which (if any) of the following is not part of the human endocrine system?
Hypothalamus and pituitary
Ovaries (in females)
Testes (in males)
All of these are part of the human endocrine system
A living dynamic tissue that is being constantly remodeled
A dead, fully formed tissue that is being constantly remodeled
A dead, fully formed tissue that is not being remodeled
A living dynamic tissue that is not being remodeled
Nervous tissue is tissue that specializes in conducting signals
Check all that are parts of the nervous tissue
Neurons (cells specialized for signal transduction)
Cartilage (firm but flexible connective tissue)
Gliel cells (support the neuron)
Myofilaments (composed of actin and myosin)
Myosin and actin are not proteins
When talking about neurons, which is the order of the signals?
Electrical signal --> chemical signal --> electrical signal
Electrical signal --> electrical signal --> chemical signal
Chemical signal --> electrical signal --> electrical signal
Chemical signal --> electrical signal --> chemical signal
In the neuron, the axon receives the signal
The sensory neurons:
Take the signals from the environment to the brain
Connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons.
Take signals from the brain and propagate them toward the muscles.
Connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons
Take signals from the brain and propagate them toward the muscles
Check all that are apply to smooth muscles
Include blood vessels
Include the intestinal track
Include the stomach
Are in the heart
Are related to moving the bones in the body
There are three general functions of the circulatory system
What is the cycle of blood?
Heart --> body --> heart --> lungs
heart--> body --> lungs --> heart
Direct the blood away from the heart
Direct the blood to the heart
The circulatory system transports nutrients, minerals, oxygen, and waste throughout the body
Cells do not need O2 to produce ATP
What is the principle function of red blood cells?
To carry oxygen
What is the principle function of white blood cells?
What is the principle function of platelets?
Blood is composed of two things: cells and plasma
Where does the major exchange of CO2 and O2 take place?
The respiratory system
The circulatory system
The digestive system
In the digestive system, where does the major absorption occur?
The small intestines
The large intestines
None of these
The large intestine is the last step in the digestion process
A hormone is a signaling molecule which elicits a psysiological response
Hormones are not diverse
When blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas releases
work by pulling bones closer together and work in opposing pairs
work by pushing bones further apart and work in opposing pairs
In muscle contraction:
Myocin is at the center and actin is on the outskirts, and they slide past each other.
Actin is at the center and myocin is on the outskirts, and they slide past eacho ther.
Which would you expect to represent the greatest biomass in an ecosystem?
Equal in all 3 of these
Carbon cycles back and forth between living and nonliving forms by:
Photosynthesis and respiration
Nitrogen can be acquired from atmospheric gas for biological processes by:
Bacteria and plants
Bacteria and fungi
All living organisms
The greatest biodiversity can be expected to occur in:
Which (if any) of the following does not influence climate?
All of these can have an effect on climate
In freshwater ponds, seasonal temperature changes cause spring and fall overturns that redistribute nutrients.
A tundra-like region can be found:
Only at the poles
At the equator
Any arid region
Sub-polar and high altitude