What percentage of species of chordates also have backbones?
What is the name for the "great chain of being"
Hierarchy of needs
In which order are the stages of prenatal development?
The germinal period, the period of the embryo, the period of the foetus
The germinal period, the period of the foetus, the period of the embryo
The period of the embryo, the period of the foetus, the germinal period
In which order are the stages of prenatal development? (detailed)
Sperm cell fertilizes egg in fallopian tube --> fuses to form zygote --> blastocyst --> blastocyst implants to wall of uterus --> stem cells --> multiplies forming a morula --> cell differentiation --> responds to different types of stimulation
Sperm cell fertilizes egg in fallopian tube --> fuses to form zygote --> multiplies forming a morula --> stem cells --> blastocyst --> blastocyst implants to wall of uterus --> cell differentiation --> responds to different types of stimulation
What is a teratogen?
A type of differentiated cell
A substance that causes birth defects
A made up object name used in language learning studies
A deformed embryo
What drug developed in 1954 caused birth defects in 2,000 cases in the UK?
Which are effects of foetal alcohol syndrome? (3 are not)
Distorted facial features
Effects on nervous system
Microcephaly (problems with vision and hearing)
Severe learning difficulties
Poor fine motor skills
Brain doesn't fully develop
Which finding by DeCasper and Spence (1986) found that learning occurs in the womb?
Babies' preference for their own name
Babies' preference for their mother's voice
Babies' preference for their mother's voice
Babies' preference for familiar over novel stories
"sensitive nerve endings"
Baby reflexes are similar to that of chimpanzees
Babies' brains weigh 400g at birth and grow to 1300g
The breakdown of connections between neurons
The formation of new connections between neurons
The formation of new neurons
The realisation that all sets of N objects have something in common is known as...
At what age to infants appear to have a sense of numerical equality?
After what age to infants show precise representation of sets of objects larger than 3?
In some experiments, infants show surprise when objects are added or subtracted behind a screen. This is known as the...
Violation of expectancy paradigm
Theory of Mind
Violation of norms paradigm
What is subitizing?
The process of counting a group of objects
The process of learning an object name as it is the only object in that group that does not already have a known label
The process by which adults and children can look at a few objects and almost immediately know how many objects are present
The process of estimating the size of a group
At 6 months, what size ratios can children understand?
By what age can most children count to 10?
Which of the following are the basic principles underlying counting (pick 5)
1 to 1 correspondence (1 object per number word)
Stable order (always recite in the same order)
Cardinality (N = last number)
Even (all numbers are even)
Order irrelevance (left to right = right to left)
Odd (all numbers are odd)
Abstraction (any set can be counted)
Siegler proposed the balance scale problem. He suggested that there are 4 stages in problem solving. Which of the following is NOT one of the stages.
Preschoolers notice weight on each side (ignoring distance)
School children focus on weight except when both sides are equal
School children focus on distance except when both sides are equal
Adolescents can consider both weight and distance but if both are unequal they get confused
A few adolescents master the concept of torque
What method of changing synaptic strength builds on the principles of Hebbian learning? ("neurons that fire together wire together")
Which of the following is NOT true about Connectionism?
It can be applied to Piaget's theory of development
It suggests that gradual changes in synaptic weights can lead to stage-like changes in behaviour
It can be applied to Siegler's balance scale model
It suggests that developmental scientists should try to build models that mimic how children learn in particular situations, and examine the performance of the neural network model to see if the child might be using the same processing "rules"
Which is NOT true about children's counting strategy choice?
At any one age, children use multiple strategies
Age and experience leads to children relying on most advanced/accurate strategies
"Min" strategy involves adding 2 numbers by starting at the larger of the 2 to save mental effort
Siegler and Jenkins (1989) found that kids often attempted strategies that violated the principles of addition
Which is NOT one of the three types of variability in problem solving proposed by Siegler?
Between individuals on related problems
Within an individual on related problems
Within an individual on the same problem twice
Within a single trial
What has been argued to be at the heart of language and cognitive development?
Infant Face Perception
Infant Gender Development
Infant Moral Development
What does Quinn (2003) say categorisation is?
When observers respond in a different manner to equivalent stimuli
When observers respond in an equivalent manner to descriminably different stimuli
When observers respond in an equivalent manner to equivalent stimuli
When observers give all objects in a category the same name
Which of these is a benefit of categorisation?
Ease of encoding/retrieval
Structure for language
Knowledge of new exemplars
All of the above
Which of the following stimulus groups have infants not been found to categorise?
Colour (Franklin & Davies 2004)
Speech (Elmas et al 1971)
Spatial relations (Quinn 1994)
Potatoes (Farmer 1985)
Faces (Ramsey et al 2004)
Animals (Quinn et al 1993)
Showing an infant something repeatedly until their looking decreases, then showing them something novel and seeing if their interest reinstates, is using which method?
Habituation & Novelty preference
Mobile Contingency/Conditioned Leg Kicking
Method particularly important for older children where children are shown a model animal or vehicle and a given action e.g. dog sips from cup, and test child's generalisation of the action?
Habituation & Novelty preference
Mobile contingency/conditioned leg kicking
Method involving analysing the order in which stimuli are touched and played with?
Habituation & Novelty Preference
Mobile Contingency / Conditioned Leg Kicking
Method which involves measuring baseline kicking with a ribbon attached to baby's foot, and then attaching ribbon to mobile so that infant kicking activates it.
Habituation & Novelty Preference
Mobile contingency / Conditioned Leg Kicking
Santrock (1998) found that the age of puberty has increased dramatically over the last few hundred years.
Puberty begins about 2-3 years earlier for boys than for girls
Wright (1989) found that there is least satisfaction with body image during puberty, and Brooks-gunn and Paikoff (1993) found that girls are less satisfied than boys.
Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that intrinsic stress of pubertal change will cause distress during the period of most rapid change?
Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth 1987)
Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin, 1980)
Early timing hypothesis (Stattin & Magnusson, 1990)
Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that events which are encountered earlier than expected will lead to distress?
Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth, 1987)
Early timing hypothesis (Stattin and Magnusson, 1990)
Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that early development (especially in girls) will lead to distress?
Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth, 1987)
Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin 1980)
Early-timing hypothesis (Stattin and Magnusson, 1990)
Research by Capsi and Moffitt (1991) into predicting girls' behavioural problems from the age of menarche supports which pubertal timing hypothesis?
Which of the following is true? (pick 5)
Girls dislike maturing early
Girls who mature early tend to be more social
Girls who mature early tend to have poor body image
Girls who mature early tend to have higher self esteem
Boys who mature early tend to have higher self esteem
Boys like maturing early
Girls who mature early tend to be more likely to engage in risky behaviours
Larson et al (1996) found that older adolescents spent less than half the time with their families as younger adolescents did, and that mediators of this decline in family time were external e.g. job, driving, peer activities
Over the past 30 years there has been a steady increase in juvenile delinquency and also a steady increase in parental monitoring
Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who after a period of exploration emerge with firm identity commitments?
Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards the active period of exploration when individuals examine alternatives in an attempt to arrive at a choice?
Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who have adopted the identities prescribed to them without ever exploring options or experiencing an identity crisis?
Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who have little sense of commitment and are not actively seeking to make decisions?
Which statement about parental influences on identity development is NOT true?
Attachment with freedom to voice opinions --> achievement / moratorium
Overly close bonds without separation --> foreclosure
Low warmth with open communication --> diffusion
High warmth but low communication --> achievement
Which description is NOT one of the 3-way typology of children proposed by Thomas and Chess in their Pediatric approach?
- applies to 40% of infants
- Regular routines, positive in terms of approaching new situations, adaptable, happy, not too intense in reactivity
- About 10% of infants
- Opposite of easy
- About 15% of infants
- Find change tricky, wary of new situations and new people, negative reaction to these kinds of changes and tend to not be so positive or vibrant in their mood
- About 5% of infants
- Find change tricky, almost never have naps, very active, anger issues
What are the two defining characteristics of the Personality Tradition approach to child temperament? (Buss and Plomin)
Traits are genetic in origin and appear in infancy
Traits are genetic in origin and appear in adolescence
Traits are a product of the environment and appear in infancy
Traits are a product of the environment and appear in adolescence
Which is NOT a constituent of the personality tradition approach to child temperament? (Buss and Plomin)
The individual differences approach to child temperament was proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998)
Korn's (1984) study into the stability of temperament using an extension of THomas and Chess's NY longitudinal study into adulthood found...
A moderate prediction of "difficulty" from age 3-4 to adulthood (r=.31 and .37) and a substantial prediction of difficulty from adolescence to adulthood (r=.62)
A substantial prediction of difficulty from age 3-4 to adulthood (r=.62) and a moderate prediction of difficulty from adolescence to adulthood (r=.31, r=.37)
Buss and Plomin (1984) found that emotionality, activity and sociability are the most heritable temperament traits with Mz twins more similar in these traits than Dz twins
The bias caused by the fact that parents know their children so well and so may report larger differences between their twins' temperaments is known as...
Taken as a whole, temperament is moderately influenced by genetic factors, and this estimate is similar across age
Stability in temperament is mediated primarily by genetic factors, whereas environmental factors account for much change seen from age to age (e.g. plomin 1993)
In Thomas and Chess's goodness/poorness of fit concept, what leads to a "goodness of fit"?
When child's capacities, motivations and temperament are adequate to master the demands, expectations and opportunities of the environment
When child's characteristics are inadequate to master the challenges of the environment, and this leads to maladaptive functioning and distorted development
4 month olds have been shown to have preference for novel category bodies rather than novel category heads
Younger (1990) found evidence for which aspect of infant categorisation?
Focus on certain features
French et al (2004) found that infants use "frequency distributions" to form categories
Younger (1990) found that infants classify unseen prototypes as category members more than a familiar, less typical example. This is an example of...
Children with autism find it more difficult to tell the difference between cats and dogs
Which aspects of development would be atypical if there was a deficit in categorisation? (pick)
Which is NOT a key finding relating to child temperament and attachment?
Children's temperamental characteristics do play a role in attachment secrity (Vaughn et al, 1992)
Infants who are more distressed by the removal of a dummy are more likely to form insecure attachments (Bell, Weller & Waldrop 1971)
Temperament may be as important as maternal sensitivity in predicting attachment security (Seifer et al 1996)
Infants who burp more generally have a more calm temperament (Wilson et al 2002)
The temperamental compnonent that is predictive of attachment security is...
Event related potential
Who found the following?:
- Intensive study of 49 families at 6,9,12 months on 24 occasions
- At 6 months, maternal sensitivity correlated .30 w/ Q sort security, but at 9 months was .20 (ns)
- Observer temperament and mother's report of difficulty were moderately associated with secuirty at 6/9/12 months
- Maternal sensitivity no longer predicted attachment security after temperament was accounted for
Siefer et al (1996)
van de Boom (1994)
Who found the following?
- Intervention study of 100 "irritable" first born infants
- At 9 months, intervention group mothers were more responsive, stimulating, visually attentive & controlling of their infants' behaviour
- Infant temperament had also changed. Infants became more sociable, self-soothing, more exploration, less crying than controls
What is one important limitation of van de Boom (1994)'s study into maternal sensitivty and child temperament?
When parenting in a stressful, economically deprived circumstance, having somebody come and talk to you for a few hours could make a really big difference. Therefore maternal sensitivty could have been compounded by social support.
The sample size wasn't large enough
Mother's ratings of child temperament may have been subjective as they know their children better than other children
What was NOT a key finding of Prior (1992) regarding child temperament and adjustment?
Relationships between temperament and adjustment are generally moderate in strength; prediction from infancy is weak, increasing by early childhood
Difficult and active babies are at increased risk for colic, sleep problems, excessive crying and abdominal pain
Temperamental difficulty is associated with both externalising and internalising problems
Temperament may be as important as maternal sensitivity in predicting attachment security
What did Capsi et al (1995) in their study on temperament and behaviour problems find to be the best predictor of behavioural problems? (especially externalising problems)
Lack of control
Which is NOT true about Mischel, Shoda and Rodriguez' (!989) study into delayed gratification?
Tests of delayed gratification in preschool reveal important individual differences
By asolescence, preschoolers able to delay gratification were less socially and economically competent
The ability to delay gratification even predicted goal-setting when ppts reached their early 30s
In which culture did DeVries (!984) find babies to hold an evolutionary advantage under harsh drought conditions?
The process of the eyes following a movement and at a certain point snapping back is known as the...
Which method of measuring infant visual acuity involves recording neural activity from scalp using electrodes, in response to a checkerboard pattern getting smaller and smaller?
Visual Evoked Potentials
Event related potentials
Goren et al (1975) found that infants show preferential tracking of faces at 1 hour old!
Which model of face perception suggests that it is an innate mechanism which is not dependant on experience, and that it directs attention to stimuli with face-like configurations, locking you onto a face?
Which system of face perception is cortical and enables you to learn from faces? i.e. is dependant on experience
Maci et al (2004) found that infants have non-specific biases to look at which type of stimuli?
Fantz and Miranda (1975) found that newborns have preferences for straight over curved edges
What has NOT been found about newborn's preference for mother's face?
Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if mother is not talking to baby at the time (Field et al 1984)
Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if olfactory cues are masked (Bushnell et al 1989)
Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if they are shown a video of it (Walton et al 1992)
Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if a man in drag is standing next to her dressed in her clothes (Tranny et al 1995)
Which are examples of when infants do NOT show preference for mother's face? (pick 2)
If mother and stranger wear headscarf (Pascalis et al 1995)
If mother prevented from previously talking to infant (Saj 2005)
If mother speaks in a foreign language (de Sprek 1999)
If mother stands upside down (Flip et al 2003)
If mother stands holding hands with a man in drag (Tranny et al 1995)
Kelly et al (2007) found that children lose the ability to discriminate faces of other racial groups as you develop due to perceptual narrowing.
Pascalis et al (2005) found that infants could discriminate new macaque faces at 6 months with no previous exposure, but at 9 months could only discriminate new macaque faces if they had been exposed to macaque faces previously.
Which is NOT true about Sugita (2008,2009)'s studies into face exposure in monkeys?
It found that face deprived monkeys look longer at human and monkey faces than objects
It found that face deprived monkeys can discriminate human and monkey faces using features or configural properties
It found that control group monkeys who have not been face deprived only look longger at monkey faces than objects, and can only discriminate monkey faces
It found that after exposure to either a human or monkey face for 1 month, monkeys prefered the species of the face they were NOT exposed to
It found that after exposure to either a human or monkey face for 1 month, monkeys can only discriminate the species of the face they were exposed to
It found that after a year of seeing both human and monkey faces, monkeys preferred the species of face initially exposed to
It found that after a year of seeing both human and monkey faces, monkeys could only discriminate the species of face they were initially exposed to
Le Grand et al (2001) found that children/adults who had congenital cataracts at birth had a deficit later in life when discriminating faces on the basis of configural diffs (but can do it if features differ).
Slater et al (1998) found that newborns look longer at unattractive faces than attractive faces
Langlois et al (1990) found that attractiveness effects social interaction at 12 months. Compared to the unattractive mask condition, the attractive mask makes infants....
Play less with stranger
Use greater affective tone
Exhibit more withdrawal
What is one criticism of Langlois et al (1990)'s study into how attractiveness effect social interaction?
The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using social referencing
The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using subitizing
The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using mirroring
The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using scaffolding
Duuren et al 2003 found that infants look longer at attractive baby faces than unattractive baby faces
Quinn et al (2008) found that 3-4 month olds look longer at attractive than unattractive cats and tigers
Slater et al (2000) found that infants look longer at attractive than unattractive inverted faces
Langlois et al (1994) found average (prototypical) faces to be less attractive
Rhodes et al (2002) found that 5-8 month olds look longest at least average and less symmetrical faces
Field et al (1983) found that observers can guess a model's expression based on an infant's expression, suggesting that newborns are sensitive to emotion in faces
McClure (2000) found that male infants are better at detecting expressions than females
Infants of depressed mothers have been foundto be less sensitive to fearful/happy face distinctions
Walker-Andrews et al found that infants looked longer at emotionally congruent stimuli (happy face with happy voice etc). This is suggestive of the fact that...
Infants have an understanding of emotion
Infants have preference for happy over angry faces
Infants have own race bias
Infants prefer symmetry
Which of the following was one of the ways in which infants showed appropriate behaviours in response to facial expressions in the study by Serrano et al (1995)
Approach movement (head, trunk, limbs move towards face) & smiling if happy face
Avoidance behaviour (head, trunk, limbs, move towards chair) & frowning & protruding lips if angry face
No response if neutral face
Autistic children soothe by repetitive motion rather than seeking comfort from somebody else
Baron Cohen et al (2001) found that autistic children show a poorer performance on the "reading in the minds eye" test
Klin et al (1992) found that ASD adolescents spend more time looking at mouths, bodies and inanimate objects than eyes. They could be worse at reading emotion due to tuning into the eyes less.
Rigby and Hancock (2009) found that children with williams syndrome spend more time looking at the rest of a scene than faces, whereas ASD children spend all their time looking at faces whilst ignoring the rest of the scene.
Rigby and Hancock's (2009) findings suggest that there is a link between your preference for looking at faces and how social you are as a person
Which component of variance influences genetic factors?
Heritability (A, h^2)
Shared environment (C, c^2)
Non shared environment (E, e^2)
Which component of variance encompasses any environmental influences which contribute to the similarity between co-twins?
Shared environment (C, c^2)
Non-shared environment (E, e^2)
Which component of genetic variance encompasses any aspect of environmental influence than makes co-twins different from each other?
What is the formula used to calculate heritability?
= 2(rMz - rDz)
= h^2 + c^2 + e^2
What is the formula used to calculate shared environment?
= 2(rMz - rDz)
= rMz - h^2
= 1 - rMz
What is the formula used to calculate non-shared environment?
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
For weight, heritability increases over time and shared environment decreases over time
The heritability of weight increases from ~0% in infancy to ~75% in later adulthood
For intelligence, heritability decreases and shared environment increases over time
The heritability of intelligence increases from ~20% in infancy to ~80% in later adulthood
Which of the following is a hypothesis regarding potential reasons for increasing heritability / decreasing enivronmental effects of traits such as weight and intelligence?
Role of specific genes may increase with age, or new genes may come into play at stages of development
People choose their environment and are more in control of their environment in older age
Both of the above
in ADHD, both change and stability from age 8 to 13 years are largely due to genetic factors
What is the name for the co-occurance of 2 disablities/disorders?
Kendler et al (1992) has found that major depression and anxiety disorders are all explained by genetic factors and non-shared environmental factors
Davis et al (2009) have found that genetic correlations in learning disabilities are very high - around 90%
Which statement about genetic variation is FALSE?
Genetic variation contributes to individual differences in behavioural traits
The human genome is built with 3 billion base pairs
More than 99% of the DNA sequence is the same for everybody
Only 1% of the DNA sequence is variable
There is not a lot of variability in humans' genetic make-up
Genetic ___________: the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits
Which hypothesis of polygenic traits states that in rare cases, one gene causes a disorder (only in about 1% of cases)
One gene, one disorder hypothesis
Quantitative loci hypothesis
Which hypothesis of polygenic traits states that many genes with variations come together, and that a combination of these causes mental retardation?
What is the name of Aristotle's theory that suggests prenatal development begins as animals further down the chain of being e.g. "fish like" stage?
Which type of differentiated cell makes up the nervous system, teeth, fingernails etc?
Which type of differentiated cell makes up muscles, bones, circulatory system, inner surface of skin?
Which type of differentiated cell makes up the gastrointestinal tracts, organs etc?
Sensory deprivation studies such as that by Hubert and Wiesel which involved sewing shut eyes of kittens found that vision is...
...dependent on experience
Which of the following is support for critical periods in development?
Recess monkeys with wire cage mother and soft mother grew up with terrible social deficits
Neglected 3 year olds have undeveloped brainds
PET scans of 9 year old romanian orphans show reduced glucose activity in prefrontal and temporal regions
Which are three key components regarding babies in Trevarten's theory of inter-subjectivity?
Contemplation of itself
Manipulation of objects
Communication with others
Manipulation of objects is related to which mode of Trevarthen's theory of intersubjectivity?
What is the name for the phenomena that newborn infants can imitate facial expressions?
Which of the following is NOT a correct pairing of Trevarthen's development stages and the associated Piagetian stage?
Reflexes / reflexes (0-2 months)
Primary intersubjectivity / primary circular reactions (2-4 months)
Secondary intersubjectivity / secondary circular reactions (5-8 months)
Epoch of games / secondary circular reactions (5-8 months)
Secondary intersubjectivity/ co-ordiated secondary circular reactions; tertiary circular reactions
Most neo-natal reflexes eventually drop out as the higher brain takes over control
Which stage of Trevathen's developmental stages does this describe?.....
6-8 weeks of age
babies become interested in people and objects
display focused, diatic engagements with people and objects, although are primarily oriented toward interplay with people
Epoch of games
What is the name for the procedure where mums face their babies and after a cue from the experimenter adopts a still face void of emotion, which causes distress in the infant?
Emotional cuing procedure
Which of Trevarthen's stages of development does this describe..?
Baby becomes object oriented
behaves systematically differently between people and objects
treats mother like an object
What are the three domains of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity?
Which of the three domains of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity does this describe?
Use of the emotional signals of a social partner to influence approach/avoidance to a novel object.
Which domain of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity does this describe?
Ability to follow pointing/gaze of social partners to specific entities.
Ability to capture and redirect the attention of a social partner.
Butterworth's finding that at 6 months a baby will follow the direction of its mother's gaze, but at 1 year baby will fixate on the same target as the mother if its the first target in its scan path is related to which domain of triadic engagement?
Which is NOT a cause of reduction in infant mortality?
Hygiene (availability of clean water, removal of rubbish)
Housing (increased prosperity, better protection from the elements)
Medicine (antibiotics, vaccines)
Education (increased wealth, education of preventative measures)
What was the name of the scandal in 1998 which claimed that the MMR vaccine was linked to autism?
The Wakefield scandal
The Wetherfield scandal
The Wetherspoons scandal
The Waketree scandal
Which of Fell et al's (1998) stages of sound production is characterised by quasi-resonant or quasi-vocalic sounds?
The phonation stage (0-2 months)
The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)
The expansion stage (3-8 months)
The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)
The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18 months)
Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by the appearance of primitive syllables combined with quasi-vocalic sounds?
The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)
Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by open vowels, squeals and frowns, yells and whispers, raspberries?
The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18months)
Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by well formed syllables and reduplicated sequences of such syllables?
The integrated/variegrated stage (9-18 months)
Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by meaningful speech, mixed babbling an speech?
At what age do babies start acting as though they have intention?
Pointing to request is an example of a...
What order are the stages of pointing to request?
Goal directed behaviour --> attention-getting behaviour --> response (waiting) --> referential directive
Attention getting behaviour --> goal directed behaviour ---> referential directive ---> response (waiting)
What is pointing to comment an example of?
Which definition of protodeclarative proposed by Moore and Corkum (1994) suggests that the goal of the behaviour is affective response from the caregiver and the reinforcer is emotional signalling?
Which definition of protodeclarative proposed by Tomasello (1995) suggests that the goal of the behaviour is joint attention to distal objects and the reinforcer is successful joint attention?
What do Moore and Corkum (1994) in their Lean Interpretation suggest are the prerequisites for use of protodeclarative?
Expectation that social partner will exhibit positive emotion, based on past experience; means-ends reasoning
Children point to things because they have some kind of recognition that others have perceptual states that can be manipulated
What does Tomasello (1995) in his rich interpretation suggest is a reason for children's use of protodeclaratives?
Children point to things because they have some kind of recognition that others have perceptual states which can be manipulated
A grizzly bear
Which approach is commonly used to explain early development?
Expressive emotional approach
Which approach is commonly used to explain later development?
Which perspective on pointing proposed by Butterworth (2003) is biologically based and species-specific?
The nativist view
The naturist view
The cognitive/representational view
The social learning view
Which 2 biological differences between humans and chimpanzees are considered evidence for the nativist view of finger pointing?
Human thumb = size of male chimp little finger
Chimp thumb = size of human little finger
In humans thumb protrudes way up whereas chimp thumb extends 1/3 up palm
In humans thumb protudes 1/3 of palm, in chimps thumb protrudes 1/3 of arm
Butterworth said that index and thumb grasp is the antithesis of pointing with the index finger
Butterworth (2003) said that whole hand pointing adopted by chimps is the antithesis of the...
Which is NOT a critique of the nativist view of pointing?
Depends upon rearing history
Pointing with whole hand is also a widespread human behaviour
It promotes nudity
Which perspective on pointing proposed by Baron-Cohen (1995) suggests that infants attempt to influence the mind of their social partners, and is evidenced by gaze monitoring and protodeclarative pointing?
The finding of Liszowski et al (2004) that in joint attention kids didn't continue to point as much implies...
...that infants understand something about the attention of others (Cognitive/representational view)
....that infants understand something about the attention of others (social learning view)
...that infants have opposable thumbs
Moore's (1994;2001) findings that an infant may understand that a point will lead to an adult head turn and an interesting subsequent response from an adult is evidence for which view of pointing?
Which is not a finding about emotion in joint attention?
Babies aged 9-18 months express positive emotion during joint object play with their mothers (Adamson & Bakeman, 1985)
Babies aged 20 & 22 months express more positive emotion during joint attention than when requesting objects (Kasari et al 1990)
Parents of babies aged 6-18 months synchronise their own smiles with their own pointing gestures when they point for their babies (Leavens et al 2014)
Babies aged 4-5 months express negative emotion when their mothers are not engaging in joint attention (Bach et al 2011)
Which is NOT a criticism of the learning theory of declarative pointing?
Absence of evidence for the ability to train precocious, declarative pointing
Absence of evidence for the necessity of positive emotional consequences for elicitation of declarative pointing
Extreme rarity of apparently declarative pointing in other animal species
Depends upon babies' rearing history
Which is NOT a biological approach to gender development?
Behavioural genetic approach
Gender schema theory
Which of the following is NOT a social approach to gender development?
Social learning theory (Mischel 1966)
Social cognitive theory (Bussey & Bandura 1999)
Gender schema theory (Martin and Halverson 1981)
Which is NOT a cognitive approach to gender development?
Cognitive developmental theory
Social learning theory
The evolutionary approach to gender development (e.g. Buss 1999) suggests that...
Behavioural tendencies have evolved that offer reproductive advantage
Girls concentrate on fostering close relationships, avoiding conflict and controlling impulses
Boys are more physically active and aggressive
What is the name of the inherited genetic condition that has been found to cause children to play in more "masculine" ways? (Nordenstrom et al)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Congenital cataract syndrome
Which was NOT one of the findings of the Twins Early Development Study (1994-1996) relating to gender development?
Heritability counted for quite a lot of individual differences in girls, but not so much in boys
Shared environment mattered more for girls than for boys
Twin-specific environment and non-shared environment had some impact in both genders
What are the 2 key processes involved in social learning theory of gender development, and their relevant supporting / contradictory research? (Mischel 1966)
Reinforcement (Langlois & Downs 1980 - fathers more positive to same-sex behaviour and critical of sons other-sex behaviour in pre-school children) and Modelling (BUT Huston 1983 - children's gender-role behaviour is not strongly correlated with their parents' behaviour).
Reinforcement (BUT Huston 1983 - children's gender role behaviour is not strongly correlated with their parents' behaviour) and Modelling (Langlois & Downs 1980 - fathers are more positive to same-sex behaviour and critical of sons' other-sex behaviour in pre-school children)
Which is NOT one of the three key influences proposed by Bussey & Bandura's social cognitive theory of gender development?
Modelling in an immediate envrionment
Enactive experience is when a child sees someone else being rewarded/punished for engaging in a specific behaviour which consequently influences their own behaviour
Which is not a criticism of the social approach to gender development?
It is adevelopmental - doesn't account for developmental changes in children's gender-stereotyped beliefs
Major mechanisms of the theory haven't been supported consistently by research
It acknowledges the role of the social environment
Which of the 3 stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' ability to label each gender by 2.5 years old?
Which of the stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' understanding that sex is stable over time by 3.5 years? (but are still easily confused by superficial marks of gender)
Which of the stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' understanding of the performance of the two genders by 6 years (don't get tripped up by superficial markers of gender)
Weinraub et al (1984) found that children prefer same-sex toys before they achieve which stage of gender understanding?
Which statement about the Gender Schema theory (Martin and Halverson 1981) is FALSE?
Gender identity has a central role rather than gender constancy
Kids rapidly build up networks of gender-related information to guide gender-stereotyped processing and behaviour
Children develop other-sex schema before same-sex schema
The theory has trouble explaining asymmetries between boys and girls
Which is NOT a criticism of cognitive theories of gender development?
Cognitive theories don't address why males and females are valued differently
Cognitive theories ignore the social context within within which gender development occurs
The predicted relationship between gender-stereotypes and gender-typed behaviour is typically not found
They are adevelopmental
Which was NOT a finding from Serbin, Powlishta & Gulko's (1993) study into cognitive and socialisation theories of gender development?
Flexibility of gender-stereotyped beliefs was related to general cognitive development
Greater flexibility of stereotyped beliefs was associated with fewer gender-stereotyped preferences
Stereotypes were learnt earlier if father was resident (boys only)
Children had more gender-stereotype preferences when mothers engaged in masculine activities
Gender stereotypes were learnt later if father did feminine domestic activities
Which is a key point about the development of gender-stereotyped preferences?
Preferences remain gender-typed in middle childhood
When preferences become more flexible this is for girls only
Overall, girls show a wider range of preferences than boys
In relation to gender development, which 2 key changes occur during middle childhood?
Increasing flexibility of gender-stereotypes
Increasing complexity of gender stereotypes
Increasing toxicity of gender stereotypes
Increasing polarity of gender stereotypes
Increasing strength of gender stereotypes
Trautner (1992) found that there is a curvilinear relationship between age and flexibility of gender stereotypes
Which 4 are BIOLOGICAL individual differences in children's moral development?
Predisposed tendency (evolutionary perspective)
Parental modelling and communication of values
opportunities for pro-social activities
Which is NOT a biological individual difference of aggression?
Neurological deficits (attention and regulatory capacities)
Which 3 are environmental factors relating to individual differences in aggression?
Ineffective discipline/family coercion
Which is not an example of a false belief task?
Reading the mind in the eyes task
Which statement about false belief tasks is INCORRECT?
A criticism of these tasks is that ids may misunderstand the question (Lewis & Osborne 1990)
Children perform better in naturalistic settings (Dunn, 1988)
Children perform better if the question is rephrased
Change of success rate is dramatic between age 3 and 4
Most children over the age of 2 can do these tasks successfully
Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) the child determining if an action is good or bad based on its consequence
2) thinks that whatever the authority figure says is right
Stage 1 - morality of constraint (under age 7)
Transitional period (ages 7/8 to 10)
Stage 2 - autonomous morality (moral relativism) - age 11-12
Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) social interactions with peers
2) beginning to take another's perspective
Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) the realisation that rules can be changed
2) punishment should fit the crime
3) focus on fairness and equality
4) consideration not motivation and intentions
Stage 2: autonomous morality (moral relativism) - age 11-12
Which is NOT one of Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
Which is NOT a finding that parents treat sons and daughters differently?
Wills et al 1976 - Parents smiled more at 6 month old "beth" and more likely to give her a doll to play with than "adam"
Rubin, Provenano, Luria (1974) - new parents (particularly dads) described their babies stereotypically despite no differences in birth weight
Fagot (1978) - girls encouraged to do feminine activities e.g. play with dolls, boys encouraged to do masculine activities e.g. play with trucks
Green (1999) - Parents disciplined sons more harshly
The effects of parenting on gender development were found to be greater the older the children were
Which 3 are ways that parents' beliefs and stereotypes can affect their children's gender-role socialisation?
The goals and expectations that they have for their children
How they perceive their children's interests
How they interact with their children
The kind of clothes they wear
The tone of their voice
Their sexual preferences
Which is not an empirical study relating to how parents influence their child's activities?
Eccles et al (1990) - suggests that parents gender-role beliefs affect judgements they make about children's competence in stereotyped activitiy domains, which in turn affects their expectations about kids' future performance and the opportunities that parents give their children.
Michigan study of adolescent life transitions - Children whose mothers thought they were good at English shared this belief, but thought they were worse at maths than their teacher thought
MIchigan study of childhood and beyond - Daughters considered more talented on a musical instrument (even though most had never played), Sons more competent/interested in sport, daughters more competent/interested in english
Which factor affects parents perceptions of competence?
True differences in attitude/ability
Gendered attributional patterns
Which is NOT a reason why father absence may make little difference to a child's gender development?
A combination of other male figures from a child's life may serve as male models
Only one parent is necessary to influence gender-role behaviour
Influence of parents may diminish after children start school
Fathers are not at all important in shaping gender development
Which is NOT a finding about the role of sibling influence on gender development?
Golombok, Hines & Johnston (2000) - found that the sex of the older sibling was associated with the gender-role behaviour of the younger sibling
McHale et al (2001) - found greater evidence for sibling influences than parental influences, especially for 2nd born siblings
Fanny et al (2004) - siblings always develop similar gender identities
What is the name given by Chomsky to the module in the brain used just for learning a language? (Nativist view of language development)
Language Acquisition Device
Language Inquisition Device
Language Accumulation Device
Language Addition Device
Which 2 arguments are challenges of Skinner's behaviourist argument of language development?
Poverty of the stimulus (we come up with things we've never heard)
Negative evidence (no examples of what is wrong)
Babbling happens around 6 months
We have a language acquisition device (module in the brain just for learning language)
Which theory of language development argues that basic perceptual and learning abilities are moulded by culture and society to become language specific? (Bates)
Children begin to learn the properties of language before birth
What did deCasper and Fifer (1980) find in their study into infants' preferences for their mother's voice?
Prenatal auditory experience helps to shape voice preferences and parent-infant interactions after birth
Babies could not distinguish their own mother's voice from a strangers voice
Babies preferred their father's voice to their mother's voice
Which has NOT been found about infant language processing?
Early in processing kids prefer familiar things
Later in processing kids prefer novel things
Infants prefer their mother's voice filtered to approximate what it sounds like in the womb
Infants prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice
Infants prefer their mother's and father's voices over strangers voices
Infants generally prefer strangers speaking their parents' language than another language
Children can only discriminate sounds from their native language when they are first born
What is the name for the hypothesis proposed by Kisilevsky et al (2003) that foetuses can remember and recognise the human voices they were exposed to pre-natally?
The in-utero-speech-experience hypothesis
The cardiotocograph hypothesis
Which is NOT true about the findings of Werker and Kuhl regarding infant non-native language perception?
Early on (6-8 months) infants are able to distinguish contrasts that are not used in their native language
Infant categories result from the distribution of phonemes in their environment
The "loss" of universal phonetic sensitivity is not complete - can be reversed with practice
Infants never lose the ability to distinguish contrasts not in their native language
Saffran et al (1996) found that infants can use correlations from the environment to learn language
Which is not a word learning bias used in infant language development?
Whole object assumption (name refers to whole object)
Principles of conventionality and contrast
Mutual exclusivity assumption (doesn't mean another object that the name of is already known)
Lexical gap hypothesis (novel object, don't already have a word for it)
What do adults use to help establish a referent?
Baldwin (1991) found that infants are really bad at following an adult's gaze in order to work out which label went with which object
What did Horst el al (2010) find about fast mapping?
Competition (more competitor objects) hinders fast mapping
Competition hinders LEARNING through fast mapping
Samuelson & Smith (!999) found that the shape bias emerges as a product of vocabulary level
English-learning children tend to show a U-shaped trend in...
What is the goal of the Dynamic Systems Theory (Thelen and Smith) in Psychology?
To explain how behaviour changes lawfully through time
To explain how motor skills develop
To explain individual differences in development
Which 2 findings from Thelen and Smith regarding the stepping reflex illustrates the dynamic systems view?
When attach weights --> babies stop stepping
When suspended in water --> reflex disappears
When hold baby upside-down --> reflex reappears
When suspended in water --> reflex reappears
Piaget suggested that children only succeed on the A not B error when they have attained object permanence
Which is NOT a finding of Thelen and Smith that goes against Piaget's object permanence theory?
Still get error on the A and B task if there is no hidden object
Still get error on the A and B task if there are no marked locations
Still get error on the A and B task if there is no reaching on A trials
Still get error on the A and B task if there are longer delays
Still get error on the A and B task if you change posture between A & B
The dynamic systems theory suggests that memory for the event is a key reason for error on the A not B task
Spencer et al (2000) found that children's reaching behaviour...
... Is variable
... Happens at the same time for all infants
Adolph et al found that infants transfer what they have learned about crawling to walking