Developmental Psychology

Question 1 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What percentage of species of chordates also have backbones?

Select one or more of the following:

  • 94%

  • 97%

  • 92%

  • 67%

Question 2 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name for the "great chain of being"

Select one of the following:

  • Human Naturae

  • Hierarchy of needs

  • Scala naturae

  • ur mom

Question 3 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In which order are the stages of prenatal development?

Select one of the following:

  • The germinal period, the period of the embryo, the period of the foetus

  • The germinal period, the period of the foetus, the period of the embryo

  • The period of the embryo, the period of the foetus, the germinal period

Question 4 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In which order are the stages of prenatal development? (detailed)

Select one of the following:

  • Sperm cell fertilizes egg in fallopian tube --> fuses to form zygote --> blastocyst --> blastocyst implants to wall of uterus --> stem cells --> multiplies forming a morula --> cell differentiation --> responds to different types of stimulation

  • Sperm cell fertilizes egg in fallopian tube --> fuses to form zygote --> multiplies forming a morula --> stem cells --> blastocyst --> blastocyst implants to wall of uterus --> cell differentiation --> responds to different types of stimulation

Question 5 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is a teratogen?

Select one of the following:

  • A type of differentiated cell

  • A substance that causes birth defects

  • A made up object name used in language learning studies

  • A deformed embryo

Question 6 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What drug developed in 1954 caused birth defects in 2,000 cases in the UK?

Select one of the following:

  • Thalodine

  • Tetarogen

  • Thalidomide

  • Dethalomide

Question 7 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which are effects of foetal alcohol syndrome? (3 are not)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Distorted facial features

  • Enlarged brain

  • Webbed toes

  • Effects on nervous system

  • Microcephaly (problems with vision and hearing)

  • Severe learning difficulties

  • Poor fine motor skills

  • Brain doesn't fully develop

Question 8 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which finding by DeCasper and Spence (1986) found that learning occurs in the womb?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Babies' preference for their own name

  • Babies' preference for their mother's voice

  • Babies' preference for their mother's voice

  • Babies' preference for familiar over novel stories

Question 9 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Endothermy means

Select one of the following:

  • "cold-blooded"

  • "warm-blooded"

  • "sensitive nerve endings"

  • "evil"

Question 10 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Baby reflexes are similar to that of chimpanzees

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 11 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Babies' brains weigh 400g at birth and grow to 1300g

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 12 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Synaptogenesis is

Select one of the following:

  • The breakdown of connections between neurons

  • The formation of new connections between neurons

  • The formation of new neurons

Question 13 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The realisation that all sets of N objects have something in common is known as...

Select one of the following:

  • Subitising

  • numerical equality

  • numerical inequality

  • counting commonalities

Question 14 of 224

Medal-premium 1

At what age to infants appear to have a sense of numerical equality?

Select one of the following:

  • 5 months

  • 6 months

  • 1 year

  • 2 years

Question 15 of 224

Medal-premium 1

After what age to infants show precise representation of sets of objects larger than 3?

Select one of the following:

  • 1-2 years

  • 2-3 years

  • 3-4 years

  • 4-5 years

Question 16 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In some experiments, infants show surprise when objects are added or subtracted behind a screen. This is known as the...

Select one of the following:

  • Violation of expectancy paradigm

  • Theory of Mind

  • Violation of norms paradigm

  • Scale Error

Question 17 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is subitizing?

Select one of the following:

  • The process of counting a group of objects

  • The process of learning an object name as it is the only object in that group that does not already have a known label

  • The process by which adults and children can look at a few objects and almost immediately know how many objects are present

  • The process of estimating the size of a group

Question 18 of 224

Medal-premium 1

At 6 months, what size ratios can children understand?

Select one of the following:

  • 2:1

  • 2:3

  • 2:5

  • 2:7

Question 19 of 224

Medal-premium 1

By what age can most children count to 10?

Select one of the following:

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

Question 20 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following are the basic principles underlying counting (pick 5)

Select one or more of the following:

  • 1 to 1 correspondence (1 object per number word)

  • Stable order (always recite in the same order)

  • Cardinality (N = last number)

  • Even (all numbers are even)

  • Order irrelevance (left to right = right to left)

  • Odd (all numbers are odd)

  • Abstraction (any set can be counted)

Question 21 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Siegler proposed the balance scale problem. He suggested that there are 4 stages in problem solving. Which of the following is NOT one of the stages.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Preschoolers notice weight on each side (ignoring distance)

  • School children focus on weight except when both sides are equal

  • School children focus on distance except when both sides are equal

  • Adolescents can consider both weight and distance but if both are unequal they get confused

  • A few adolescents master the concept of torque

Question 22 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What method of changing synaptic strength builds on the principles of Hebbian learning? ("neurons that fire together wire together")

Select one or more of the following:

  • Collectivism

  • Connectionism

  • Correctivism

  • Conjunctivitus

Question 23 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is NOT true about Connectionism?

Select one or more of the following:

  • It can be applied to Piaget's theory of development

  • It suggests that gradual changes in synaptic weights can lead to stage-like changes in behaviour

  • It can be applied to Siegler's balance scale model

  • It suggests that developmental scientists should try to build models that mimic how children learn in particular situations, and examine the performance of the neural network model to see if the child might be using the same processing "rules"

Question 24 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT true about children's counting strategy choice?

Select one of the following:

  • At any one age, children use multiple strategies

  • Age and experience leads to children relying on most advanced/accurate strategies

  • "Min" strategy involves adding 2 numbers by starting at the larger of the 2 to save mental effort

  • Siegler and Jenkins (1989) found that kids often attempted strategies that violated the principles of addition

Question 25 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT one of the three types of variability in problem solving proposed by Siegler?

Select one of the following:

  • Between individuals on related problems

  • Within an individual on related problems

  • Within an individual on the same problem twice

  • Within a single trial

Question 26 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What has been argued to be at the heart of language and cognitive development?

Select one of the following:

  • Infant Categorisation

  • Infant Face Perception

  • Infant Gender Development

  • Infant Moral Development

Question 27 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What does Quinn (2003) say categorisation is?

Select one of the following:

  • When observers respond in a different manner to equivalent stimuli

  • When observers respond in an equivalent manner to descriminably different stimuli

  • When observers respond in an equivalent manner to equivalent stimuli

  • When observers give all objects in a category the same name

Question 28 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of these is a benefit of categorisation?

Select one of the following:

  • Efificient processing

  • Ease of encoding/retrieval

  • Structure for language

  • Knowledge of new exemplars

  • All of the above

Question 29 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following stimulus groups have infants not been found to categorise?

Select one of the following:

  • Colour (Franklin & Davies 2004)

  • Speech (Elmas et al 1971)

  • Spatial relations (Quinn 1994)

  • Potatoes (Farmer 1985)

  • Faces (Ramsey et al 2004)

  • Animals (Quinn et al 1993)

Question 30 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Showing an infant something repeatedly until their looking decreases, then showing them something novel and seeing if their interest reinstates, is using which method?

Select one of the following:

  • Habituation & Novelty preference

  • Generalised Imitation

  • Sequential Touching

  • Mobile Contingency/Conditioned Leg Kicking

Question 31 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Method particularly important for older children where children are shown a model animal or vehicle and a given action e.g. dog sips from cup, and test child's generalisation of the action?

Select one of the following:

  • Habituation & Novelty preference

  • Generalised Imitation

  • Sequential Touching

  • Mobile contingency/conditioned leg kicking

Question 32 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Method involving analysing the order in which stimuli are touched and played with?

Select one of the following:

  • Habituation & Novelty Preference

  • Generalised Imitation

  • Sequential touching

  • Mobile Contingency / Conditioned Leg Kicking

Question 33 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Method which involves measuring baseline kicking with a ribbon attached to baby's foot, and then attaching ribbon to mobile so that infant kicking activates it.

Select one of the following:

  • Habituation & Novelty Preference

  • Generalised Imitation

  • Sequential Touching

  • Mobile contingency / Conditioned Leg Kicking

Question 34 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Santrock (1998) found that the age of puberty has increased dramatically over the last few hundred years.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 35 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Puberty begins about 2-3 years earlier for boys than for girls

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 36 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Wright (1989) found that there is least satisfaction with body image during puberty, and Brooks-gunn and Paikoff (1993) found that girls are less satisfied than boys.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 37 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that intrinsic stress of pubertal change will cause distress during the period of most rapid change?

Select one of the following:

  • Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth 1987)

  • Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin, 1980)

  • Early timing hypothesis (Stattin & Magnusson, 1990)

Question 38 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that events which are encountered earlier than expected will lead to distress?

Select one of the following:

  • Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth, 1987)

  • Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin, 1980)

  • Early timing hypothesis (Stattin and Magnusson, 1990)

Question 39 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which hypothesis of pubertal timing states that early development (especially in girls) will lead to distress?

Select one of the following:

  • Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth, 1987)

  • Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin 1980)

  • Early-timing hypothesis (Stattin and Magnusson, 1990)

Question 40 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Research by Capsi and Moffitt (1991) into predicting girls' behavioural problems from the age of menarche supports which pubertal timing hypothesis?

Select one of the following:

  • Stressful change hypothesis (Simmons & Blyth 1987)

  • Off time hypothesis (Livson & Peskin 1980)

  • Early-timing hypothesis (Stattin and Magnusson, 1990)

Question 41 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is true? (pick 5)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Girls dislike maturing early

  • Girls who mature early tend to be more social

  • Girls who mature early tend to have poor body image

  • Girls who mature early tend to have higher self esteem

  • Boys who mature early tend to have higher self esteem

  • Boys like maturing early

  • Girls who mature early tend to be more likely to engage in risky behaviours

Question 42 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Larson et al (1996) found that older adolescents spent less than half the time with their families as younger adolescents did, and that mediators of this decline in family time were external e.g. job, driving, peer activities

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 43 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Over the past 30 years there has been a steady increase in juvenile delinquency and also a steady increase in parental monitoring

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 44 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who after a period of exploration emerge with firm identity commitments?

Select one of the following:

  • Identity achievement

  • Moratorium

  • Foreclosure

  • Identity diffusion

Question 45 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards the active period of exploration when individuals examine alternatives in an attempt to arrive at a choice?

Select one of the following:

  • Identity achievement

  • Moratorium

  • Foreclosure

  • Identity Diffusion

Question 46 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who have adopted the identities prescribed to them without ever exploring options or experiencing an identity crisis?

Select one of the following:

  • Identity achievement

  • Moratorium

  • Foreclosure

  • Identity diffusion

Question 47 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Marcia's 4 identity statuses regards individuals who have little sense of commitment and are not actively seeking to make decisions?

Select one of the following:

  • Identity Achievement

  • Moratorium

  • Foreclosure

  • Identity diffusion

Question 48 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which statement about parental influences on identity development is NOT true?

Select one of the following:

  • Attachment with freedom to voice opinions --> achievement / moratorium

  • Overly close bonds without separation --> foreclosure

  • Low warmth with open communication --> diffusion

  • High warmth but low communication --> achievement

Question 49 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which description is NOT one of the 3-way typology of children proposed by Thomas and Chess in their Pediatric approach?

Select one of the following:

  • Easy:
    - applies to 40% of infants
    - Regular routines, positive in terms of approaching new situations, adaptable, happy, not too intense in reactivity

  • Difficult:
    - About 10% of infants
    - Opposite of easy

  • Slow-to-warm-up:
    - About 15% of infants
    - Find change tricky, wary of new situations and new people, negative reaction to these kinds of changes and tend to not be so positive or vibrant in their mood

  • Slow-to-cool-down:
    - About 5% of infants
    - Find change tricky, almost never have naps, very active, anger issues

Question 50 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What are the two defining characteristics of the Personality Tradition approach to child temperament? (Buss and Plomin)

Select one of the following:

  • Traits are genetic in origin and appear in infancy

  • Traits are genetic in origin and appear in adolescence

  • Traits are a product of the environment and appear in infancy

  • Traits are a product of the environment and appear in adolescence

Question 51 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a constituent of the personality tradition approach to child temperament? (Buss and Plomin)

Select one of the following:

  • Emotionality

  • Activity

  • Sociability

  • Irritability

Question 52 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The individual differences approach to child temperament was proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998)

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 53 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Korn's (1984) study into the stability of temperament using an extension of THomas and Chess's NY longitudinal study into adulthood found...

Select one of the following:

  • A moderate prediction of "difficulty" from age 3-4 to adulthood (r=.31 and .37) and a substantial prediction of difficulty from adolescence to adulthood (r=.62)

  • A substantial prediction of difficulty from age 3-4 to adulthood (r=.62) and a moderate prediction of difficulty from adolescence to adulthood (r=.31, r=.37)

  • Inconclusive results

Question 54 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Buss and Plomin (1984) found that emotionality, activity and sociability are the most heritable temperament traits with Mz twins more similar in these traits than Dz twins

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 55 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The bias caused by the fact that parents know their children so well and so may report larger differences between their twins' temperaments is known as...

Select one of the following:

  • Rating bias

  • Attachment bias

  • Heritability Bias

  • Parent Bias

Question 56 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Taken as a whole, temperament is moderately influenced by genetic factors, and this estimate is similar across age

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 57 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Stability in temperament is mediated primarily by genetic factors, whereas environmental factors account for much change seen from age to age (e.g. plomin 1993)

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 58 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In Thomas and Chess's goodness/poorness of fit concept, what leads to a "goodness of fit"?

Select one of the following:

  • When child's capacities, motivations and temperament are adequate to master the demands, expectations and opportunities of the environment

  • When child's characteristics are inadequate to master the challenges of the environment, and this leads to maladaptive functioning and distorted development

Question 59 of 224

Medal-premium 1

4 month olds have been shown to have preference for novel category bodies rather than novel category heads

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 60 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Younger (1990) found evidence for which aspect of infant categorisation?

Select one of the following:

  • Focus on certain features

  • Correlate features

  • Feature distributions

  • Prototype formation

Question 61 of 224

Medal-premium 1

French et al (2004) found that infants use "frequency distributions" to form categories

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 62 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Younger (1990) found that infants classify unseen prototypes as category members more than a familiar, less typical example. This is an example of...

Select one of the following:

  • Prototype formation

  • Focus on certain features

  • Correlating features

  • Feature distributions

Question 63 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Children with autism find it more difficult to tell the difference between cats and dogs

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 64 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which aspects of development would be atypical if there was a deficit in categorisation? (pick)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Language

  • Social situations

  • Stereotyping

  • Motor development

  • Memory

  • Temperament

Question 65 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a key finding relating to child temperament and attachment?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Children's temperamental characteristics do play a role in attachment secrity (Vaughn et al, 1992)

  • Infants who are more distressed by the removal of a dummy are more likely to form insecure attachments (Bell, Weller & Waldrop 1971)

  • Temperament may be as important as maternal sensitivity in predicting attachment security (Seifer et al 1996)

  • Infants who burp more generally have a more calm temperament (Wilson et al 2002)

Question 66 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The temperamental compnonent that is predictive of attachment security is...

Select one of the following:

  • Negative reactivity

  • Positive reactivity

  • Event related potential

  • Maternal sensitivity

Question 67 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Who found the following?:
- Intensive study of 49 families at 6,9,12 months on 24 occasions
- At 6 months, maternal sensitivity correlated .30 w/ Q sort security, but at 9 months was .20 (ns)
- Observer temperament and mother's report of difficulty were moderately associated with secuirty at 6/9/12 months
- Maternal sensitivity no longer predicted attachment security after temperament was accounted for

Select one of the following:

  • Siefer et al (1996)

  • van de Boom (1994)

Question 68 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Who found the following?
- Intervention study of 100 "irritable" first born infants
- At 9 months, intervention group mothers were more responsive, stimulating, visually attentive & controlling of their infants' behaviour
- Infant temperament had also changed. Infants became more sociable, self-soothing, more exploration, less crying than controls

Select one of the following:

  • van de Boom (1994)

  • Siefer (1996)

Question 69 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is one important limitation of van de Boom (1994)'s study into maternal sensitivty and child temperament?

Select one of the following:

  • When parenting in a stressful, economically deprived circumstance, having somebody come and talk to you for a few hours could make a really big difference. Therefore maternal sensitivty could have been compounded by social support.

  • The sample size wasn't large enough

  • Mother's ratings of child temperament may have been subjective as they know their children better than other children

Question 70 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What was NOT a key finding of Prior (1992) regarding child temperament and adjustment?

Select one of the following:

  • Relationships between temperament and adjustment are generally moderate in strength; prediction from infancy is weak, increasing by early childhood

  • Difficult and active babies are at increased risk for colic, sleep problems, excessive crying and abdominal pain

  • Temperamental difficulty is associated with both externalising and internalising problems

  • Temperament may be as important as maternal sensitivity in predicting attachment security

Question 71 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What did Capsi et al (1995) in their study on temperament and behaviour problems find to be the best predictor of behavioural problems? (especially externalising problems)

Select one of the following:

  • Lack of control

  • Approach

  • Sluggishness

Question 72 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT true about Mischel, Shoda and Rodriguez' (!989) study into delayed gratification?

Select one of the following:

  • Tests of delayed gratification in preschool reveal important individual differences

  • By asolescence, preschoolers able to delay gratification were less socially and economically competent

  • The ability to delay gratification even predicted goal-setting when ppts reached their early 30s

Question 73 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In which culture did DeVries (!984) find babies to hold an evolutionary advantage under harsh drought conditions?

Select one of the following:

  • Maasai

  • Ashanti

  • Bobo

  • Mandika

Question 74 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The process of the eyes following a movement and at a certain point snapping back is known as the...

Select one of the following:

  • OKN repsonse

  • KON response

  • NKO response

  • ONK response

Question 75 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which method of measuring infant visual acuity involves recording neural activity from scalp using electrodes, in response to a checkerboard pattern getting smaller and smaller?

Select one of the following:

  • OKN method

  • Visual Evoked Potentials

  • Event related potentials

  • MRI scan

Question 76 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Goren et al (1975) found that infants show preferential tracking of faces at 1 hour old!

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 77 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which model of face perception suggests that it is an innate mechanism which is not dependant on experience, and that it directs attention to stimuli with face-like configurations, locking you onto a face?

Select one of the following:

  • CONSPEC system

  • CONLERN system

  • OKN system

Question 78 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which system of face perception is cortical and enables you to learn from faces? i.e. is dependant on experience

Select one of the following:

  • CONSPEC system

  • CONLERN system

  • OKN system

Question 79 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Maci et al (2004) found that infants have non-specific biases to look at which type of stimuli?

Select one of the following:

  • Top-heavy

  • Bottom-heavy

  • Symmetrical

  • Inverted

Question 80 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Fantz and Miranda (1975) found that newborns have preferences for straight over curved edges

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 81 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What has NOT been found about newborn's preference for mother's face?

Select one of the following:

  • Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if mother is not talking to baby at the time (Field et al 1984)

  • Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if olfactory cues are masked (Bushnell et al 1989)

  • Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if they are shown a video of it (Walton et al 1992)

  • Newborns look longer at mother's than stranger's face even if a man in drag is standing next to her dressed in her clothes (Tranny et al 1995)

Question 82 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which are examples of when infants do NOT show preference for mother's face? (pick 2)

Select one or more of the following:

  • If mother and stranger wear headscarf (Pascalis et al 1995)

  • If mother prevented from previously talking to infant (Saj 2005)

  • If mother speaks in a foreign language (de Sprek 1999)

  • If mother stands upside down (Flip et al 2003)

  • If mother stands holding hands with a man in drag (Tranny et al 1995)

Question 83 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Kelly et al (2007) found that children lose the ability to discriminate faces of other racial groups as you develop due to perceptual narrowing.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 84 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Pascalis et al (2005) found that infants could discriminate new macaque faces at 6 months with no previous exposure, but at 9 months could only discriminate new macaque faces if they had been exposed to macaque faces previously.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 85 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT true about Sugita (2008,2009)'s studies into face exposure in monkeys?

Select one of the following:

  • It found that face deprived monkeys look longer at human and monkey faces than objects

  • It found that face deprived monkeys can discriminate human and monkey faces using features or configural properties

  • It found that control group monkeys who have not been face deprived only look longger at monkey faces than objects, and can only discriminate monkey faces

  • It found that after exposure to either a human or monkey face for 1 month, monkeys prefered the species of the face they were NOT exposed to

  • It found that after exposure to either a human or monkey face for 1 month, monkeys can only discriminate the species of the face they were exposed to

  • It found that after a year of seeing both human and monkey faces, monkeys preferred the species of face initially exposed to

  • It found that after a year of seeing both human and monkey faces, monkeys could only discriminate the species of face they were initially exposed to

Question 86 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Le Grand et al (2001) found that children/adults who had congenital cataracts at birth had a deficit later in life when discriminating faces on the basis of configural diffs (but can do it if features differ).

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 87 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Slater et al (1998) found that newborns look longer at unattractive faces than attractive faces

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 88 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Langlois et al (1990) found that attractiveness effects social interaction at 12 months. Compared to the unattractive mask condition, the attractive mask makes infants....

Select one of the following:

  • Play less with stranger

  • Use greater affective tone

  • Exhibit more withdrawal

Question 89 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is one criticism of Langlois et al (1990)'s study into how attractiveness effect social interaction?

Select one of the following:

  • The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using social referencing

  • The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using subitizing

  • The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using mirroring

  • The mother is in the room at the time, so children could have been using scaffolding

Question 90 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Duuren et al 2003 found that infants look longer at attractive baby faces than unattractive baby faces

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 91 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Quinn et al (2008) found that 3-4 month olds look longer at attractive than unattractive cats and tigers

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 92 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Slater et al (2000) found that infants look longer at attractive than unattractive inverted faces

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 93 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Langlois et al (1994) found average (prototypical) faces to be less attractive

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 94 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Rhodes et al (2002) found that 5-8 month olds look longest at least average and less symmetrical faces

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 95 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Field et al (1983) found that observers can guess a model's expression based on an infant's expression, suggesting that newborns are sensitive to emotion in faces

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 96 of 224

Medal-premium 1

McClure (2000) found that male infants are better at detecting expressions than females

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 97 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Infants of depressed mothers have been foundto be less sensitive to fearful/happy face distinctions

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 98 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Walker-Andrews et al found that infants looked longer at emotionally congruent stimuli (happy face with happy voice etc). This is suggestive of the fact that...

Select one of the following:

  • Infants have an understanding of emotion

  • Infants have preference for happy over angry faces

  • Infants have own race bias

  • Infants prefer symmetry

Question 99 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following was one of the ways in which infants showed appropriate behaviours in response to facial expressions in the study by Serrano et al (1995)

Select one of the following:

  • Approach movement (head, trunk, limbs move towards face) & smiling if happy face

  • Avoidance behaviour (head, trunk, limbs, move towards chair) & frowning & protruding lips if angry face

  • No response if neutral face

  • All of the above

Question 100 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Autistic children soothe by repetitive motion rather than seeking comfort from somebody else

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 101 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Baron Cohen et al (2001) found that autistic children show a poorer performance on the "reading in the minds eye" test

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 102 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Klin et al (1992) found that ASD adolescents spend more time looking at mouths, bodies and inanimate objects than eyes. They could be worse at reading emotion due to tuning into the eyes less.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 103 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Rigby and Hancock (2009) found that children with williams syndrome spend more time looking at the rest of a scene than faces, whereas ASD children spend all their time looking at faces whilst ignoring the rest of the scene.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 104 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Rigby and Hancock's (2009) findings suggest that there is a link between your preference for looking at faces and how social you are as a person

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 105 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which component of variance influences genetic factors?

Select one of the following:

  • Heritability (A, h^2)

  • Shared environment (C, c^2)

  • Non shared environment (E, e^2)

Question 106 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which component of variance encompasses any environmental influences which contribute to the similarity between co-twins?

Select one of the following:

  • Heritability (A, h^2)

  • Shared environment (C, c^2)

  • Non-shared environment (E, e^2)

Question 107 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which component of genetic variance encompasses any aspect of environmental influence than makes co-twins different from each other?

Select one of the following:

  • Heritability (A, h^2)

  • Shared environment (C, c^2)

  • Non-shared environment (E, e^2)

Question 108 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the formula used to calculate heritability?

Select one of the following:

  • = 2(rMz - rDz)

  • =rMz-h^2

  • =1-rMZ

  • = h^2 + c^2 + e^2

Question 109 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the formula used to calculate shared environment?

Select one of the following:

  • = 2(rMz - rDz)

  • = rMz - h^2

  • = 1 - rMz

  • = h^2 + c^2 + e^2

Question 110 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the formula used to calculate non-shared environment?

Select one of the following:

  • = 2(rMz - rDz)

  • = rMz-h^2

  • = 1 - rMz

  • = h^2 + c^2 + e^2

Question 111 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

Select one of the following:

  • For weight, heritability increases over time and shared environment decreases over time

  • The heritability of weight increases from ~0% in infancy to ~75% in later adulthood

  • For intelligence, heritability decreases and shared environment increases over time

  • The heritability of intelligence increases from ~20% in infancy to ~80% in later adulthood

Question 112 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is a hypothesis regarding potential reasons for increasing heritability / decreasing enivronmental effects of traits such as weight and intelligence?

Select one of the following:

  • Role of specific genes may increase with age, or new genes may come into play at stages of development

  • People choose their environment and are more in control of their environment in older age

  • Both of the above

Question 113 of 224

Medal-premium 1

in ADHD, both change and stability from age 8 to 13 years are largely due to genetic factors

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 114 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name for the co-occurance of 2 disablities/disorders?

Select one of the following:

  • Comorbidity

  • Codisorder

  • Cominority

  • Congeniality

Question 115 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Kendler et al (1992) has found that major depression and anxiety disorders are all explained by genetic factors and non-shared environmental factors

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 116 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Davis et al (2009) have found that genetic correlations in learning disabilities are very high - around 90%

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 117 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which statement about genetic variation is FALSE?

Select one of the following:

  • Genetic variation contributes to individual differences in behavioural traits

  • The human genome is built with 3 billion base pairs

  • More than 99% of the DNA sequence is the same for everybody

  • Only 1% of the DNA sequence is variable

  • There is not a lot of variability in humans' genetic make-up

Question 118 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Genetic ___________: the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits

Select one of the following:

  • Pleiotropy

  • Phenotripy

  • Plasticity

  • Plurality

Question 119 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which hypothesis of polygenic traits states that in rare cases, one gene causes a disorder (only in about 1% of cases)

Select one of the following:

  • One gene, one disorder hypothesis

  • Quantitative loci hypothesis

Question 120 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which hypothesis of polygenic traits states that many genes with variations come together, and that a combination of these causes mental retardation?

Select one of the following:

  • One gene, one disorder hypothesis

  • Quantitative loci hypothesis

Question 121 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name of Aristotle's theory that suggests prenatal development begins as animals further down the chain of being e.g. "fish like" stage?

Select one of the following:

  • Recapitulation theory

  • Reciprocal theory

  • Reiteration theory

  • Re-enactment Theory

Question 122 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which type of differentiated cell makes up the nervous system, teeth, fingernails etc?

Select one of the following:

  • Ectoderm

  • Mesoderm

  • Endoderm

Question 123 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which type of differentiated cell makes up muscles, bones, circulatory system, inner surface of skin?

Select one of the following:

  • Ectoderm

  • Mesoderm

  • Endoderm

Question 124 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which type of differentiated cell makes up the gastrointestinal tracts, organs etc?

Select one of the following:

  • Ectoderm

  • Mesoderm

  • Endoderm

Question 125 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Sensory deprivation studies such as that by Hubert and Wiesel which involved sewing shut eyes of kittens found that vision is...

Select one of the following:

  • ...innate

  • ...dependent on experience

Question 126 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is support for critical periods in development?

Select one of the following:

  • Recess monkeys with wire cage mother and soft mother grew up with terrible social deficits

  • Accents

  • Neglected 3 year olds have undeveloped brainds

  • PET scans of 9 year old romanian orphans show reduced glucose activity in prefrontal and temporal regions

  • All of the above

Question 127 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which are three key components regarding babies in Trevarten's theory of inter-subjectivity?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Contemplation of itself

  • Manipulation of objects

  • Communication with others

  • Moral development

  • Temperament

Question 128 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Manipulation of objects is related to which mode of Trevarthen's theory of intersubjectivity?

Select one of the following:

  • Communication mode

  • Praxic Mode

  • Developmental mode

  • Manipulation mode

Question 129 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name for the phenomena that newborn infants can imitate facial expressions?

Select one of the following:

  • Neonatal reflex

  • Neonatal development

  • Neonatal imitation

  • Neonatal participation

Question 130 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is NOT a correct pairing of Trevarthen's development stages and the associated Piagetian stage?

Select one of the following:

  • Reflexes / reflexes (0-2 months)

  • Primary intersubjectivity / primary circular reactions (2-4 months)

  • Secondary intersubjectivity / secondary circular reactions (5-8 months)

  • Epoch of games / secondary circular reactions (5-8 months)

  • Secondary intersubjectivity/ co-ordiated secondary circular reactions; tertiary circular reactions

Question 131 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Most neo-natal reflexes eventually drop out as the higher brain takes over control

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 132 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which stage of Trevathen's developmental stages does this describe?.....

6-8 weeks of age
babies become interested in people and objects
display focused, diatic engagements with people and objects, although are primarily oriented toward interplay with people

Select one of the following:

  • Primary intersubjectivity

  • Epoch of games

  • Secondary inter-subjectivity

  • Neonatal reflexes

Question 133 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name for the procedure where mums face their babies and after a cue from the experimenter adopts a still face void of emotion, which causes distress in the infant?

Select one of the following:

  • Still-face procedure

  • Emotionless procedure

  • Emotional cuing procedure

  • Standard procedure

Question 134 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Trevarthen's stages of development does this describe..?
Baby becomes object oriented
behaves systematically differently between people and objects
treats mother like an object

Select one of the following:

  • Primary intersubjectivity

  • Epoch of games

  • Secondary intersubjectivity

  • Neonatal reflexes

Question 135 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What are the three domains of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Social referencing

  • Joint attention

  • Intentional communication

  • Emotionality

  • Stability

Question 136 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the three domains of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity does this describe?

Use of the emotional signals of a social partner to influence approach/avoidance to a novel object.

Select one of the following:

  • Social referencing

  • Joint attention

  • Intentional communication

Question 137 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which domain of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity does this describe?

Ability to follow pointing/gaze of social partners to specific entities.

Select one of the following:

  • Social referencing

  • Joint attention

  • Intentional communication

Question 138 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which domain of triadic engagement in secondary intersubjectivity does this describe?

Ability to capture and redirect the attention of a social partner.

Select one of the following:

  • Social referencing

  • Joint attention

  • Intentional communication

Question 139 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Butterworth's finding that at 6 months a baby will follow the direction of its mother's gaze, but at 1 year baby will fixate on the same target as the mother if its the first target in its scan path is related to which domain of triadic engagement?

Select one of the following:

  • Social referencing

  • Joint attention

  • Intentional communication

Question 140 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a cause of reduction in infant mortality?

Select one of the following:

  • Hygiene (availability of clean water, removal of rubbish)

  • Housing (increased prosperity, better protection from the elements)

  • Medicine (antibiotics, vaccines)

  • Education (increased wealth, education of preventative measures)

Question 141 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What was the name of the scandal in 1998 which claimed that the MMR vaccine was linked to autism?

Select one of the following:

  • The Wakefield scandal

  • The Wetherfield scandal

  • The Wetherspoons scandal

  • The Waketree scandal

Question 142 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Fell et al's (1998) stages of sound production is characterised by quasi-resonant or quasi-vocalic sounds?

Select one of the following:

  • The phonation stage (0-2 months)

  • The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)

  • The expansion stage (3-8 months)

  • The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)

  • The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18 months)

Question 143 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by the appearance of primitive syllables combined with quasi-vocalic sounds?

Select one of the following:

  • The phonation stage (0-2 months)

  • The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)

  • The expansion stage (3-8 months)

  • The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)

  • The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18 months)

Question 144 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by open vowels, squeals and frowns, yells and whispers, raspberries?

Select one of the following:

  • The phonation stage (0-2 months)

  • The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)

  • The expansion stage (3-8 months)

  • The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)

  • The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18months)

Question 145 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by well formed syllables and reduplicated sequences of such syllables?

Select one of the following:

  • The phonation stage (0-2 months)

  • The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)

  • The expansion stage (3-8 months)

  • The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)

  • The integrated/variegrated stage (9-18 months)

Question 146 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of Fell et al (1998)s stages of sound production is characterised by meaningful speech, mixed babbling an speech?

Select one of the following:

  • The phonation stage (0-2 months)

  • The primitive articulation stage (1-4 months)

  • The expansion stage (3-8 months)

  • The canonical syllable stage (5-10 months)

  • The integrative/variegrated stage (9-18 months)

Question 147 of 224

Medal-premium 1

At what age do babies start acting as though they have intention?

Select one of the following:

  • 6 months

  • 1 year

  • 18 months

  • 2 years

Question 148 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Pointing to request is an example of a...

Select one of the following:

  • Protodeclarative

  • Protoimperative

Question 149 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What order are the stages of pointing to request?

Select one of the following:

  • Goal directed behaviour --> attention-getting behaviour --> response (waiting) --> referential directive

  • Attention getting behaviour --> goal directed behaviour ---> referential directive ---> response (waiting)

Question 150 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is pointing to comment an example of?

Select one of the following:

  • Protoimperative

  • Protodeclarative

Question 151 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which definition of protodeclarative proposed by Moore and Corkum (1994) suggests that the goal of the behaviour is affective response from the caregiver and the reinforcer is emotional signalling?

Select one of the following:

  • Lean interpretation

  • Rich interpretation

Question 152 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which definition of protodeclarative proposed by Tomasello (1995) suggests that the goal of the behaviour is joint attention to distal objects and the reinforcer is successful joint attention?

Select one of the following:

  • Lean interpretation

  • Rich interpretation

Question 153 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What do Moore and Corkum (1994) in their Lean Interpretation suggest are the prerequisites for use of protodeclarative?

Select one of the following:

  • Expectation that social partner will exhibit positive emotion, based on past experience; means-ends reasoning

  • Children point to things because they have some kind of recognition that others have perceptual states that can be manipulated

Question 154 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What does Tomasello (1995) in his rich interpretation suggest is a reason for children's use of protodeclaratives?

Select one of the following:

  • Children point to things because they have some kind of recognition that others have perceptual states which can be manipulated

  • A grizzly bear

Question 155 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which approach is commonly used to explain early development?

Select one of the following:

  • Expressive emotional approach

  • Theory-of-mind approach

Question 156 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which approach is commonly used to explain later development?

Select one of the following:

  • Expressive emotional approach

  • Theory-of-mind approach

Question 157 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which perspective on pointing proposed by Butterworth (2003) is biologically based and species-specific?

Select one of the following:

  • The nativist view

  • The naturist view

  • The cognitive/representational view

  • The social learning view

Question 158 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 2 biological differences between humans and chimpanzees are considered evidence for the nativist view of finger pointing?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Human thumb = size of male chimp little finger

  • Chimp thumb = size of human little finger

  • In humans thumb protrudes way up whereas chimp thumb extends 1/3 up palm

  • In humans thumb protudes 1/3 of palm, in chimps thumb protrudes 1/3 of arm

Question 159 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Butterworth said that index and thumb grasp is the antithesis of pointing with the index finger

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 160 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Butterworth (2003) said that whole hand pointing adopted by chimps is the antithesis of the...

Select one of the following:

  • power grip

  • power trip

  • power slip

Question 161 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a critique of the nativist view of pointing?

Select one of the following:

  • Depends upon rearing history

  • Pointing with whole hand is also a widespread human behaviour

  • It promotes nudity

Question 162 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which perspective on pointing proposed by Baron-Cohen (1995) suggests that infants attempt to influence the mind of their social partners, and is evidenced by gaze monitoring and protodeclarative pointing?

Select one of the following:

  • The nativist view

  • The cognitive/representational view

  • The social learning view

Question 163 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The finding of Liszowski et al (2004) that in joint attention kids didn't continue to point as much implies...

Select one of the following:

  • ...that infants understand something about the attention of others (Cognitive/representational view)

  • ....that infants understand something about the attention of others (social learning view)

  • ...that infants have opposable thumbs

Question 164 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Moore's (1994;2001) findings that an infant may understand that a point will lead to an adult head turn and an interesting subsequent response from an adult is evidence for which view of pointing?

Select one of the following:

  • The nativist view

  • The cognitive/representational view

  • The social learning view

Question 165 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is not a finding about emotion in joint attention?

Select one of the following:

  • Babies aged 9-18 months express positive emotion during joint object play with their mothers (Adamson & Bakeman, 1985)

  • Babies aged 20 & 22 months express more positive emotion during joint attention than when requesting objects (Kasari et al 1990)

  • Parents of babies aged 6-18 months synchronise their own smiles with their own pointing gestures when they point for their babies (Leavens et al 2014)

  • Babies aged 4-5 months express negative emotion when their mothers are not engaging in joint attention (Bach et al 2011)

Question 166 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a criticism of the learning theory of declarative pointing?

Select one of the following:

  • Absence of evidence for the ability to train precocious, declarative pointing

  • Absence of evidence for the necessity of positive emotional consequences for elicitation of declarative pointing

  • Extreme rarity of apparently declarative pointing in other animal species

  • Depends upon babies' rearing history

Question 167 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a biological approach to gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Evolutionary approaches

  • Hormones

  • Behavioural genetic approach

  • Gender schema theory

Question 168 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the following is NOT a social approach to gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Social learning theory (Mischel 1966)

  • Social cognitive theory (Bussey & Bandura 1999)

  • Gender schema theory (Martin and Halverson 1981)

Question 169 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a cognitive approach to gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Cognitive developmental theory

  • Gender schema theory

  • Social learning theory

Question 170 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The evolutionary approach to gender development (e.g. Buss 1999) suggests that...

Select one of the following:

  • Behavioural tendencies have evolved that offer reproductive advantage

  • Girls concentrate on fostering close relationships, avoiding conflict and controlling impulses

  • Boys are more physically active and aggressive

  • All of the above

Question 171 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name of the inherited genetic condition that has been found to cause children to play in more "masculine" ways? (Nordenstrom et al)

Select one of the following:

  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  • Congenital cataract syndrome

  • ADHD

Question 172 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which was NOT one of the findings of the Twins Early Development Study (1994-1996) relating to gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Heritability counted for quite a lot of individual differences in girls, but not so much in boys

  • Shared environment mattered more for girls than for boys

  • Twin-specific environment and non-shared environment had some impact in both genders

Question 173 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What are the 2 key processes involved in social learning theory of gender development, and their relevant supporting / contradictory research? (Mischel 1966)

Select one of the following:

  • Reinforcement (Langlois & Downs 1980 - fathers more positive to same-sex behaviour and critical of sons other-sex behaviour in pre-school children) and Modelling (BUT Huston 1983 - children's gender-role behaviour is not strongly correlated with their parents' behaviour).

  • Reinforcement (BUT Huston 1983 - children's gender role behaviour is not strongly correlated with their parents' behaviour) and Modelling (Langlois & Downs 1980 - fathers are more positive to same-sex behaviour and critical of sons' other-sex behaviour in pre-school children)

Question 174 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT one of the three key influences proposed by Bussey & Bandura's social cognitive theory of gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Modelling in an immediate envrionment

  • Enactive experience

  • Direct tuition

  • Reinforcement

Question 175 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Enactive experience is when a child sees someone else being rewarded/punished for engaging in a specific behaviour which consequently influences their own behaviour

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 176 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is not a criticism of the social approach to gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • It is adevelopmental - doesn't account for developmental changes in children's gender-stereotyped beliefs

  • Major mechanisms of the theory haven't been supported consistently by research

  • It acknowledges the role of the social environment

Question 177 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the 3 stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' ability to label each gender by 2.5 years old?

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity

  • Gender stability

  • Gender constancy

Question 178 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' understanding that sex is stable over time by 3.5 years? (but are still easily confused by superficial marks of gender)

Select one of the following:

  • Gender stability

  • Gender identity

  • Gender constancy

Question 179 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of the stages in gender understanding (Slaby & Frey) refers to infants' understanding of the performance of the two genders by 6 years (don't get tripped up by superficial markers of gender)

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity

  • Gender stability

  • Gender constancy

Question 180 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Weinraub et al (1984) found that children prefer same-sex toys before they achieve which stage of gender understanding?

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity

  • Gender stability

  • Gender constancy

Question 181 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which statement about the Gender Schema theory (Martin and Halverson 1981) is FALSE?

Select one of the following:

  • Gender identity has a central role rather than gender constancy

  • Kids rapidly build up networks of gender-related information to guide gender-stereotyped processing and behaviour

  • Children develop other-sex schema before same-sex schema

  • The theory has trouble explaining asymmetries between boys and girls

Question 182 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a criticism of cognitive theories of gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Cognitive theories don't address why males and females are valued differently

  • Cognitive theories ignore the social context within within which gender development occurs

  • The predicted relationship between gender-stereotypes and gender-typed behaviour is typically not found

  • They are adevelopmental

Question 183 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which was NOT a finding from Serbin, Powlishta & Gulko's (1993) study into cognitive and socialisation theories of gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Flexibility of gender-stereotyped beliefs was related to general cognitive development

  • Greater flexibility of stereotyped beliefs was associated with fewer gender-stereotyped preferences

  • Stereotypes were learnt earlier if father was resident (boys only)

  • Children had more gender-stereotype preferences when mothers engaged in masculine activities

  • Gender stereotypes were learnt later if father did feminine domestic activities

Question 184 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is a key point about the development of gender-stereotyped preferences?

Select one of the following:

  • Preferences remain gender-typed in middle childhood

  • When preferences become more flexible this is for girls only

  • Overall, girls show a wider range of preferences than boys

  • All of the above

Question 185 of 224

Medal-premium 1

In relation to gender development, which 2 key changes occur during middle childhood?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Increasing flexibility of gender-stereotypes

  • Increasing complexity of gender stereotypes

  • Increasing toxicity of gender stereotypes

  • Increasing polarity of gender stereotypes

  • Increasing strength of gender stereotypes

Question 186 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Trautner (1992) found that there is a curvilinear relationship between age and flexibility of gender stereotypes

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 187 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 4 are BIOLOGICAL individual differences in children's moral development?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Predisposed tendency (evolutionary perspective)

  • Genes

  • Temperament

  • Assertiveness

  • Parental modelling and communication of values

  • opportunities for pro-social activities

  • Discipline/parenting styles

  • TV/video games

Question 188 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a biological individual difference of aggression?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Temperament

  • Hormones (testosterone)

  • Neurological deficits (attention and regulatory capacities)

  • Parental conflict

Question 189 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 3 are environmental factors relating to individual differences in aggression?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Parental punishment

  • Ineffective discipline/family coercion

  • Parental conflict

  • Temperament

Question 190 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is not an example of a false belief task?

Select one of the following:

  • Sally-Anne task

  • Smarties task

  • Reading the mind in the eyes task

Question 191 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which statement about false belief tasks is INCORRECT?

Select one of the following:

  • A criticism of these tasks is that ids may misunderstand the question (Lewis & Osborne 1990)

  • Children perform better in naturalistic settings (Dunn, 1988)

  • Children perform better if the question is rephrased

  • Change of success rate is dramatic between age 3 and 4

  • Most children over the age of 2 can do these tasks successfully

Question 192 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) the child determining if an action is good or bad based on its consequence
2) thinks that whatever the authority figure says is right

Select one of the following:

  • Stage 1 - morality of constraint (under age 7)

  • Transitional period (ages 7/8 to 10)

  • Stage 2 - autonomous morality (moral relativism) - age 11-12

Question 193 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) social interactions with peers
2) beginning to take another's perspective

Select one of the following:

  • Stage 1 - morality of constraint (under age 7)

  • Transitional period (ages 7/8 to 10)

  • Stage 2 - autonomous morality (moral relativism) - age 11-12

Question 194 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which of piaget's stages of moral development is characterised by
1) the realisation that rules can be changed
2) punishment should fit the crime
3) focus on fairness and equality
4) consideration not motivation and intentions

Select one of the following:

  • Stage 1 - morality of constraint (under age 7)

  • Transitional period (ages 7/8 to 10)

  • Stage 2: autonomous morality (moral relativism) - age 11-12

Question 195 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT one of Kohlberg's stages of moral development?

Select one of the following:

  • Preconventional reasoning

  • Postconventional reasoning

  • Conventional reasoning

  • Unconventional reasoning

Question 196 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a finding that parents treat sons and daughters differently?

Select one of the following:

  • Wills et al 1976 - Parents smiled more at 6 month old "beth" and more likely to give her a doll to play with than "adam"

  • Rubin, Provenano, Luria (1974) - new parents (particularly dads) described their babies stereotypically despite no differences in birth weight

  • Fagot (1978) - girls encouraged to do feminine activities e.g. play with dolls, boys encouraged to do masculine activities e.g. play with trucks

  • Green (1999) - Parents disciplined sons more harshly

Question 197 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The effects of parenting on gender development were found to be greater the older the children were

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 198 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 3 are ways that parents' beliefs and stereotypes can affect their children's gender-role socialisation?

Select one or more of the following:

  • The goals and expectations that they have for their children

  • How they perceive their children's interests

  • How they interact with their children

  • The kind of clothes they wear

  • The tone of their voice

  • Their sexual preferences

Question 199 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is not an empirical study relating to how parents influence their child's activities?

Select one of the following:

  • Eccles et al (1990) - suggests that parents gender-role beliefs affect judgements they make about children's competence in stereotyped activitiy domains, which in turn affects their expectations about kids' future performance and the opportunities that parents give their children.

  • Michigan study of adolescent life transitions - Children whose mothers thought they were good at English shared this belief, but thought they were worse at maths than their teacher thought

  • MIchigan study of childhood and beyond - Daughters considered more talented on a musical instrument (even though most had never played), Sons more competent/interested in sport, daughters more competent/interested in english

Question 200 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which factor affects parents perceptions of competence?

Select one of the following:

  • True differences in attitude/ability

  • Gendered attributional patterns

Question 201 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a reason why father absence may make little difference to a child's gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • A combination of other male figures from a child's life may serve as male models

  • Only one parent is necessary to influence gender-role behaviour

  • Influence of parents may diminish after children start school

  • Fathers are not at all important in shaping gender development

Question 202 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a finding about the role of sibling influence on gender development?

Select one of the following:

  • Golombok, Hines & Johnston (2000) - found that the sex of the older sibling was associated with the gender-role behaviour of the younger sibling

  • McHale et al (2001) - found greater evidence for sibling influences than parental influences, especially for 2nd born siblings

  • Fanny et al (2004) - siblings always develop similar gender identities

Question 203 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name given by Chomsky to the module in the brain used just for learning a language? (Nativist view of language development)

Select one of the following:

  • Language Acquisition Device

  • Language Inquisition Device

  • Language Accumulation Device

  • Language Addition Device

Question 204 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 2 arguments are challenges of Skinner's behaviourist argument of language development?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Poverty of the stimulus (we come up with things we've never heard)

  • Negative evidence (no examples of what is wrong)

  • Babbling happens around 6 months

  • We have a language acquisition device (module in the brain just for learning language)

Question 205 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which theory of language development argues that basic perceptual and learning abilities are moulded by culture and society to become language specific? (Bates)

Select one or more of the following:

  • Nativist argument

  • Behaviourist argument

  • Interactionist argument

Question 206 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Children begin to learn the properties of language before birth

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 207 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What did deCasper and Fifer (1980) find in their study into infants' preferences for their mother's voice?

Select one of the following:

  • Prenatal auditory experience helps to shape voice preferences and parent-infant interactions after birth

  • Babies could not distinguish their own mother's voice from a strangers voice

  • Babies preferred their father's voice to their mother's voice

Question 208 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which has NOT been found about infant language processing?

Select one of the following:

  • Early in processing kids prefer familiar things

  • Later in processing kids prefer novel things

  • Infants prefer their mother's voice filtered to approximate what it sounds like in the womb

  • Infants prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice

  • Infants prefer their mother's and father's voices over strangers voices

  • Infants generally prefer strangers speaking their parents' language than another language

  • Children can only discriminate sounds from their native language when they are first born

Question 209 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the name for the hypothesis proposed by Kisilevsky et al (2003) that foetuses can remember and recognise the human voices they were exposed to pre-natally?

Select one of the following:

  • The in-utero-speech-experience hypothesis

  • The-out-utero-voice-experience hypothesis

  • The cardiotocograph hypothesis

Question 210 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT true about the findings of Werker and Kuhl regarding infant non-native language perception?

Select one of the following:

  • Early on (6-8 months) infants are able to distinguish contrasts that are not used in their native language

  • Infant categories result from the distribution of phonemes in their environment

  • The "loss" of universal phonetic sensitivity is not complete - can be reversed with practice

  • Infants never lose the ability to distinguish contrasts not in their native language

Question 211 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Saffran et al (1996) found that infants can use correlations from the environment to learn language

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 212 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is not a word learning bias used in infant language development?

Select one of the following:

  • Whole object assumption (name refers to whole object)

  • Principles of conventionality and contrast

  • Mutual exclusivity assumption (doesn't mean another object that the name of is already known)

  • Lexical gap hypothesis (novel object, don't already have a word for it)

  • Consonant-Vowel distinction

Question 213 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What do adults use to help establish a referent?

Select one of the following:

  • Scaffolding

  • Joint attention

  • Both

Question 214 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Baldwin (1991) found that infants are really bad at following an adult's gaze in order to work out which label went with which object

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 215 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What did Horst el al (2010) find about fast mapping?

Select one of the following:

  • Competition (more competitor objects) hinders fast mapping

  • Competition hinders LEARNING through fast mapping

Question 216 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Samuelson & Smith (!999) found that the shape bias emerges as a product of vocabulary level

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 217 of 224

Medal-premium 1

English-learning children tend to show a U-shaped trend in...

Select one of the following:

  • Past-tense morphology

  • Past-tense syntax

  • Present-tense morphology

  • Present-tense syntax

Question 218 of 224

Medal-premium 1

What is the goal of the Dynamic Systems Theory (Thelen and Smith) in Psychology?

Select one of the following:

  • To explain how behaviour changes lawfully through time

  • To explain how motor skills develop

  • To explain individual differences in development

Question 219 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which 2 findings from Thelen and Smith regarding the stepping reflex illustrates the dynamic systems view?

Select one or more of the following:

  • When attach weights --> babies stop stepping

  • When suspended in water --> reflex disappears

  • When hold baby upside-down --> reflex reappears

  • When suspended in water --> reflex reappears

Question 220 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Piaget suggested that children only succeed on the A not B error when they have attained object permanence

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 221 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Which is NOT a finding of Thelen and Smith that goes against Piaget's object permanence theory?

Select one of the following:

  • Still get error on the A and B task if there is no hidden object

  • Still get error on the A and B task if there are no marked locations

  • Still get error on the A and B task if there is no reaching on A trials

  • Still get error on the A and B task if there are longer delays

  • Still get error on the A and B task if you change posture between A & B

Question 222 of 224

Medal-premium 1

The dynamic systems theory suggests that memory for the event is a key reason for error on the A not B task

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 223 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Spencer et al (2000) found that children's reaching behaviour...

Select one of the following:

  • ... Is variable

  • ... Happens at the same time for all infants

Question 224 of 224

Medal-premium 1

Adolph et al found that infants transfer what they have learned about crawling to walking

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False
Icon_fullscreen

Developmental Psychology

emking23
Quiz by , created over 1 year ago

Developmental Psychology Quiz

Eye 66
Pin 2
Balloon-left 0
Tags
emking23
Created by emking23 over 1 year ago
Close