Define Rate of reaction
How do you find rate of reaction from a concentration vs time graph?
what is initial rate of reaction
name some ways of monitoring reaction rates
What does zero order mean?
What does first order mean?
What does second order mean?
Define the rate constant
How do you work out overall order?
Define half life
If a reactant has a constant half life which order must it be?
how does half live vary for a second order reactant?
How does half life vary for a zero order reactant?
Describe the shape of a rate/conc graph for a zero order reactant
Describe the shape of a rate/conc graph for a first order reactant
Describe the shape of a graph of rate/conc for a second order reactant
How does temperature affect K?
Define reaction mechanism
Define rate-determining step
How do you know which compounds are involved in rate determining step from rate equation?
Define dynamic equilibrium
what is the equilibrium law?
Define homogenous equilibrium
Define heterogeneous equilibrium
Do you use concentrations or moles in Kc calculations?
What does a Kc bigger than 1 represent?
How is Kc affected by temperature?
Define a Bronsted-Lowry acid
define a Bronsted-Lowry base
define an alkali
Define a monobasic, dibasic and tribasic acid
Complete general equation: Acid +metal =
Complete general equation: Acid + base =
Complete general equation: acid + metal carbonate =
Define an acid-base pair
How do you convert from PH to conc of Hydrogen ions?
Define a strong acid
Define a weak acid
Define acid dissociation constant
What do high values of pKa mean about strength of acids
For a known concentration of a strong acid what does the concentration of H+ ions equal?
For weak acids what does ka expression simplify to?
Define ionisation of water
How can you work out concentration of Hydrogen ions in a strong base?
Define a buffer solution
How does a buffer work?
What is a buffer solution a mixture of?
how can you calculate conc of H+ of a buffer solution?
What substances act as the buffer in the blood?
Define equivalence point
Define End point
How do you choose a suitable indicator?
How do you calculate standard enthalpy change of neutralisation?
Define standard enthalpy change of neutralisation
Define lattice enthalpy
Define Hess' Law
Define the standard enthalpy change of formation
Define enthalpy change of atomisation
why is enthalpy change of atomisation always positive?
Define first ionisation energy
Why is first ionisation energy endothermic?
Define second ionisation energy
Define first electron affinity
Why is first electron affinity exothermic?
Define second electron affinity
Why is second electron affinity endothermic
What goes on the lowest level in a born haber cycle?
How do you calculate missing values from born haber cycles?
Define enthalpy change of solution
Define enthalpy change of hydration
How do you calculate missing values from a Born-haber cycle containing enthalpy changes of solution and hydration?
How does ionic radius affect lattice enthalpy
how does ionic charge affect lattice enthalpy?
how does ionic size affect hydration enthalpy?
How does ionic charge affect hydration enthalpies?
In which reactions does entropy increase?
How do you calculate entropy change?
define standard entropy change of reaction
define free energy change
What is the equation relating free energy, entropy and enthalpy?
For a reaction to be feasible /\G must be...
How do endothermic reactions take place?
What is the function of the wire in a half cell
What is the purpose of the salt bridge in a half cell?
Which metal is used as the electrode in the standard hydrogen half cell?
define standard electrode potential
How do you calculate cell potential?
If a reaction appears to be feasible why may it not take place in practice?
In which direction does the more negative half equation act?
How are batteries recharged?
How do fuel cells differ from batteries?
What is the half equation for the reaction at the negative electrode in a fuel cell?
What is the half equation for the reaction in a fuel cell at the positive electrode?
What is the overall reaction in a fuel cell?
What are advantages of fuel cell vehicles?
how can hydrogen be stored?
what are some limitations of hydrogen fuel cells?
How can hydrogen be manufactured?
define transition element
How do the electron configurations of copper and chromium differ?
What makes transition elements good catalysts?
What is the catalyst used in the haber process?
What is the catalyst used in the contact process?
What is the catalyst used in hydrogenation of alkenes
What colour is copper hydroxide?
what colour is cobalt hydroxide?
what colour is Fe(OH)2?
What colour is Fe(OH)3?
Define complex ion
Define a ligand
What is coordination number
What is the shape of a complex ion with coordination number of six?
Describe the position of the ligands in cis [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+
What is a bidentate ligand?
name a hexadentate ion and some uses for it
define optical isomers
Define ligand substitution
What would be the colour change if [Cu(H2O)6]2+ was reacted with excess ammonia and give the formula of the product formed
What is the colour change in the reaction of [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + HCl (excess)
What is the colour change when [Co(H2O)6]2+ is reacted with excess chloride ions?
Why can carbon monoxide reduce oxygen transport around the body?
In stability constants do you include the water?
define the stability constant
What does a large Kstab value represent?
what is the overall equation for the reaction of MnO4- with Fe2+?
What is the colour change in a titration involving manganese ions?
What does a redox titration involve?
What is the equation for the reaction between iodine and thiosulfate ions?
Describe how you would carry out a titration to calculate percentage of copper in a compound