On the Auckland Transport Website how is a road or road reserve defined?
the area from the property boundary on one side of the road to the property boundary on the other side of the road. This includes the berm (grass verge), footpath and carriageway
the area from the foot path on one side of the road to the footpath on the other side of the road. This includes the berm (grass verge), footpath and carriageway
the berm from one side of the road, the guttering, the road, the opposite guttering to the berm on the other side of the road.
the road itself no other items included
How many types of pavements are there?
Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements are rigid pavements. Choose the correct facts about rigid pavement.
Expensive to make due to concrete laying machinery
Are self draining due to porous properties of concrete
May or may not be laid on top of granular materials
Do not need any reinforcement due to the concrete colour strength
Does not flex under loading to accommodate traffic due to their high modulus of Elasticity
All of the above
Flexible pavement structure flexes to accommodate traffic loads. Choose the correct facts about flexible pavements.
Flexible pavements can be made from wood, steel or glass chips depending on the countries code of practice.
Flexible pavements are bituminous pavements and can either be chipseal or asphaltic concrete surfacing.
Flexible pavements may or may not incorporate underlying layers of stabilized or unstabilized granular materials on a prepared subgrade.
Semi-rigid or semi-flexible pavements are a mixture of rigid and flexible options. Choose the correct facts about this pavement type.
An asphalt layer can overlay a PCC pavement when removing or reapiring the old PCC layer is not economical or practical?
Semi-rigid designs comprise of cement-asphaltic concrete mixture as the surfacing layer or the courses underneath the surfacing layer can be mixed withe either cement or asphalt to achieve a stronger base
Resin modified pavements (RMP) was the original term for cement asphalt composite surfacing due to the use of polymer modified cement grouting material
Pavement deflection under a vehicle wheel load, tensile stresses occur at the top of the pavement and compressive stresses occur at the bottom.
What are the components of a road pavement in order.
Hot-mix Asphalt Surface, subgade, subbase(optional), Frost protection (as appropriate) basecourse.
Hot-mix Asphalt Surface, Base Course (maybe stabilized) Subbase (optional) Frost protection (as appropriate) subgrade
Chips, Bitumen, Frost protection (as appropriate) subbase, sub grade, Base course
What do we need a road to do? Choose one.
Safe, comfortable travel of vehicles and non vehicular traffic
Consider alternative environmentally sustainable designs
Serviceability- suitable for everyday use
Amenity- convenient feature accessible
Access to all lots
links to roading network- local to highways
comply with standards and plans - eg AT or NZTA
all of the above
There are two different types of road heavy duty (Airport runways, motorways, wharves and container depots) and light duty (temporary roads and haul roads)?
What are the construction types of roads. Choose the correct answers.
Unbound Crushed aggregate
Asphaltic Concrete (Bituminous bound)
Lime or Cement Stabilised Bases or Subgrade
Reinforced with Geo-textiles or Geo-grids
The mechanistic-Empirical Design approach seeks to explain the relationship between the loads and material properties of the pavement structure which is typically described using a mathematical model
The Empirical Design approach uses data from experience, experimentation or a combination of both.
What are the advantages of a mechanistic-empirical pavement design method?
can be used for both existing pavement rehabilitation and new pavement construction
'it accommodates changing load types
It can better characterize materials allowing for : better utilization of new materials, Accommodation of new materials and an improved definition of existing layer properties
It accommodates environmental and aging effects of materials
It better defines the role of construction
It provides more reliable performance predictions
The benefit of the mechanistic-empirical approach is its ability to accurately characterize insitu material, It eliminates the guess work, can be costly and new data is still developing.
Who is the controlling authority for NZ state highways?
Australia/New Zealand transport Authority ANZTA
Department of Transport and Main Roads New Zealand (TMRNZ)
The New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA)
The New Zealand Transport Authority (NZTA)
The local authorities are responsible for local roads. In Auckland the Auckland Transport (AT) controls all local roads. It is a council controlled organization (CCO)
Choose the correct Road Hierarchy functions:
The conventional road hierarchy classifies roads/streets according to their movement and access functions
roads/streets are designated into different groups or classes according to the type of service each group is intended to provide
The hierarchical classification system is regarded as a fundamental tool for urban development and road network design and management
What are the Auckland Hierarchy components for Arterials
What are the Auckland Hierarchy components for Non-arterial roads?
lanes & service lanes
shared space/shared zones
What are the factors Influencing road design?
Money, government policy, how fast the prime minister needs to travel, the need for animals to cross.
Design vehicles, design speed, road user characteristics, functional classifications
the amount of bridges per road, how many pedestrian crossings are needed, the lighting systems, toll roads
Traffic volumes by type %heavy commercial vehicles, bus route and network, cycle volumes and network, land use context
Collectors/distributors types of roads collect tolls and traffic fines and distribute amongst the road funding
Local roads/streets provide vehicle access to developments and residential properties, access for emergency service vehicles, pedestrian and cyclist movements, neighbourhood social interactions, aesthetic values to the neighborhood, speed is kept low i.e 50km/h
Levels of Temporary Traffic Management (TTM) are: (choose all those that apply)
Level LV: low volume roads (AADT less than 500vpd)
Level 1- low to moderate volume roads(AADT 500 to10,000vpd)
Level 2 - high volume Roads (AADT greater than 10000 vpd
level 3 - high volume, high speed multi-lane roads Expressways and Motorways (AADT greater than 10, 000 vpd and speed greater than 75km/h)
How a road works: Pressure is exerted via a vehicle load on the surfacing layer. The pressure is distributed through the Basecourse and Subbase layers so the Pressure is reduced to a level that causes minimal subgrade deformation.
Choose the correct facts for the Subgrade:
It is the insitu soil beneath the road
It has requirements of: strength-to support road loads, Drainage- to shed water, line and level-correct alignment and level for the road, and smooth-no bumps and hollows
Subgrade may be soft so options are: thicker sub-base layer, sub-grade improvement by drainage, preloading, lime stabilization, cement stabilization
The layer just below the bituminous surface
the Subbase layer is between the base course and the subgrade and functions primarily as a structural support
Choose the facts for the subbase layer:
Minimizes the intrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement structure
Minimizes frost action damage
provides a working platform for construction
Generally consists of lower quality materials than the base course but better than the subgrade soil
A subbase course is not always needed or used
Basecourse, is the top of pavement, structural support to wheel loads, distributes load to subbase, minimum layer of 100mm and is compacted to "stone mosaic" finish not entirely smooth as needs to connect the surface layer with top of base course
What is surfacing-chipseal?
Damaged pieces of road that has "chipped off"
chip encased in binder, first coat seals-grade 4 in lower viscosity bitumen, second coat seals- grade 2 or 43 chip with 180/200 bitumen, Alternative-seal with locking coat (wet or dry)
Bitumen with M 40 agreggate. Double coated for protection and long lasting coverage.
what are thicker layers 100 to 150 mm semi rigid pavement,not used much in NZ rural areas as it is too expensive, waterproof, does not need chip seal underneath, tack coat usually used- called?