What kind of disease is dental caries?
What kind of infection is Periodontal Disease?
What kind of infection is Oral Herpes/Heres Labialis?
What kind of infection is Thrush?
What kind of infection is Peptic Ulcers?
What kind of infection is Staphylococcus Intoxication?
What kind of infection is Botulism?
Which of the following are bacterial strains of Enteritis?
Which of the following strains are viral Enteritis?
Which of the following strains are protozoan Enteritis?
What kind of infection is Clostridium diificile infection?
What kind of infection is Cholera?
What kind of infection is Poliomyelitis?
What kind of infection is Hepatitis A and E?
What kind of infection is Urinary Cystitis?
What kind of infection is Septicemia and Septic Shock?
What kind of infection is Vaginosis caused by Candida albicans?
What kind of infection is Vaginosis that caused by gardnerella vaginalis?
What kind of infection is Vaginosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis?
What kind of infection is Toxic Shock Syndrome?
What kind of infection is gonorrhea?
What kind of infection is Chlamydial Disease?
What kind of infection is Syphilis?
What kind of infection is Genital Herpes?
What kind of infection is Genital Warts?
What kind of infection is Hepatitis B, C and D?
What kind of infection is AIDS?
Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori are most effectively treated with what?
Drugs that reduce stomach acid production
Avoidance of spicy foods only
A change in lifestyle that reduces stress only
Drugs that coat the stomach lining only
Antibiotics combined with drugs that reduce stomach acid production and ones that coat the stomach lining
Chemical host defense factors for the digestive system include:
Food-borne infection is caused by microbes in food that infect the intestines of the host, then proliferate and produce toxins there; in contrast, food-borne intoxication results from direct effects of toxins ingested in food that has been stored under conditions that promote microbial growth and toxin production.
About a day and a half after a fraternity-sorority picnic (and for a few days after that), many students experienced gastrointestinal distress (cramps, diarrhea and vomiting), along with fever and nausea. Each of these students ingested undercooked barbecued chicken (because of the barbecue sauce, it was difficult to see that the chicken was still pink in color). These students most likely suffered from what?
Enteritis and periodontal disease are both syndromes because each of these diseases had a number of different etiological agents that ultimately lead to generation of its own characteristic set of signs and symptoms that lets us know that we have either enteritis or periodontal disease.
In cases of botulism due to eating contaminated food, appropriate treatment consists of:
Antibiotic and antitoxin
Antibiotic and fluid replacement
Letting the disease run its course
When Helicobacter pylori uses urease to generate ammonia to neutralize stomach acid and vacuolating cytotoxin to damage gastric cells to release nutrients, it induces inflammation that leads to infiltration of phagocytes which secrete cytokines that make the inflammation worse and lead to formation of ulcers, which generate a gnawing or burning pain in the abdomen.
Select the ONE statement that is TRUE
Plaque damage to teeth occurs by means of a specific toxin that erodes tooth enamel
Fecal transplant is a "last ditch" method for the treatment of cholera infections
Cryptosporidium oocysts can be transmitted in swimming pools by infected young children with diarrhea, even when they are wearing swim diapers or swim pants
TLC and supportive care are the only treatments for hepatitis A and E, oral herpes, giardiasis, staphylococcal intoxication and poliomyelitis, because effective CTAs are not available
Vaccines are available for cholera, hepatitis A and E and polio, but not rotavirus
Select the ONE answer that is TRUE
Once a herpes cold sore or oral herpes lesion disappears, the infection is cured and lesions will not recur
Access to good sanitation and clean drinking water is a key to prevention of most gastrointestinal infections worldwide
Shigatoxic E.coli (STEC) is uncommon in the US and serious infections are very rare
An infected person's feces can contain infectious agents, but their vomitus cannot, due to its highly acidic nature
The cysts of both Giardia and Cryptosporidium are readily killed by chlorine, so there is no need to use filtration to purify drinking water
Select ALL of the following that are TRUE
Because this opportunistic bacterium is a member of the normal microbiota, use of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy (which kills off most of the other normal microbiota) can lead to Clostridium difficult infections, especially in the elderly
Food contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus can only cause illness in people who eat it while the bacteria are still alive
The organisms that cause both dental caries and periodontal disease are normal bacterial microbiota that accumulate on teeth as dental plaque, and the caries they cause can be prevented by regular flossing and brushing with fluoride toothpaste plus biannual tooth cleaning by a dental hygienist
Polio begins as an intestinal infection that is followed by a production of a neurotoxin that causes damage of motor neurons in the CNS and leads to flaccid paralysis
Botulism is transmitted by improperly canned foods containing bacterial spores that germinate to form vegetative bacteria that grow and produce an exotoxin that can lead to cardiac and/or respiratory failure
Cholera toxin leads to sever dehydration, but patients can usually be successfully treated by replacing water and salts, either by oral hydration or by IV administration
Toxins play a significant role in hepatitis A and botulism, but not in enteritis or oral Candidiasis (thrush)
Identify ALL of the properties SHARED by infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
The signs and symptoms are more apparent in men than in women
Signs and symptoms may include painful urination and discharge
Pelvic inflammatory disease is not a complication of both of these diseases, just one of them
Antibiotic resistance is a significant problem for either of these diseases
Due to damage to the fallopian tubes, they may lead to ectopic pregnancy or infertility in women
Although Chlamydia causes the highest number of reported STD cases each year, it is not the number one sexually transmitted infection in the US; in fact, the estimated incidence of Trichomonsas and HPV STIs are both higher than that of Chlamydia STIs
Indwelling urethral catheters post little or no risk for nosocomial infections
The death rates for septicemia and septic shock makes these maladies the number 11 killer in the country
Septicemia, but not septic shock, is associated with loss of blood flow to vital organs
In septic shock, the damage is caused by bacteria growing in the lungs and physically clogging them
Because prevention of vaginal infections depends on sloughing of glycogen-containing epithelial cells and maintenance of low vaginal pH by normal microbiota, treatment of urinary cystitis with an antibiotic that kills Gram-positive bacteria is highly unlikely vaginal candidiasis in a twenty-something woman
Identify ALL of the potential results of infection Syphilis
Formation of a chancre
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Transmission of syphilis via contact with open lesions
Congenital (birth) defects
Gumma formation that occurs after a latent period
The symptoms characteristics of vaginosis include vaginal inflammation and open cervical lesions, but neither itching or discharge
Urinary cystitis is caused by vaginal normal microbiota that are introduced into the urethra during sexual intercourse
Vaginosis is a syndrome, the causes of which include fungal, protozoal and bacterial normal microbiota
While vaginosis is associated with renal damage, urinary cystitis is not
Although condom use will not help prevent vaginosis, personal hygiene can
Once an STD is cured, reinfection will not occur, although latent organisms can cause recurrence of some of these diseases
With most STDs, when the symptoms go away, one can no longer be considered infectious, so transmission of the disease to a sexual partner is of little concern
The latest estimates indicate that 15 million Americans become newly infected with an STD each year, yet these diseases are one of the most under recognized health threats
Condoms are not effective in preventing STDs, so vaccination remains the primary means of prevention
Women who are promiscuous and practice unprotected sex do not have a higher risk of miscarriage or children with birth defects
Urinary cystitis is not considered an STD; rather it is a urinary tract infection caused by normal GI tract microbiota, frequently E.coli, that are often introduced into the urethra during sexual intercourse.
You receive the following medical history from a male patient: development of an odorless, whitish discharge, abdominal pain and burning sensation on urination 10 days following sex with a new partner. Staining of the discharge did NOT reveal gram negative diplococci. His partner probably gave him what?
Select the statement that is TRUE
Normal microbiota are never associated with genitourinary infections
There should be no normal microbiota of any kind in the urinary tract
Phagocytes are not a significant cellular host defense factor involved in genitourinary infections
Mucus is both a chemical and physical host defense factor involved in preventing genitourinary infections
Which of the following infections have vaccines?
Which infections are treated by a procedure/surgery?
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Hepatitis B, C, D
Which of all the following are treated with antibiotics/antifungals/antivirals?
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Which of the following infections are treated with antimicrobial agent therapy/other drug therapies?
Clostridium difficile infection
Which infections are treated with TLC and supportive measures?
Hepatitis A and E
You observe the following symptoms in a patient: low-grade fever, anorexia and vomiting, followed by jaundice and pain in the region of the liver. Medical records reveal a history of IV drug abuse. This patient is most likely suffering from what?
cervical cancer can be a complication of genital herpes, but not genital warts
one will develop visible genital sores when they have genital herpes, but not when they have syphilis
HIV and gonorrhea are associated with chronic or latent infections, but neither chlamydia nor syphilis has a latent stage
penile cancer can be a complication of genital warts, but not genital herpes
Identify ALL the correct statements about HIV/AIDS
During asymptomatic HIV infection, levels of virus circulating in the blood remain high
Opportunistic diseases are the primary cause of mortality in AIDS patients
AIDS is still a significant cause of death of men between the ages of 25 and 44 years in the US
Although infected with HIV, people are not considered to have AIDS until they develop opportunistic infections or unusual cancers
Combination drug therapies are most effective in reducing circulating HIV than are therapies that utilize only individual drugs
During its replication cycle, HIV generates a DNA copy of its genome that is integrated into the chromosomes of infected host cells
HIV is remarkably stable genetically because it rarely undergoes mutations
Which statement about genitourinary infections are TRUE?
The lesions typical of genital warts occur only on the genitalia, not on (or in) any other part of the body
Hepatitis B and C are both associated with IV drug use and transfusions, as well as with promiscuous sexual behavior
In both men and women genital herpes causes genital lesions; it may result in PID, but not cervical damage, in women
Identify ALL the correct statements regarding HPV
High-risk types of HPV are the leading cause of oropharyangeal cancer
Low-risk HPV strains are not associated with metastatic cancer because they are not known to generate malignant tumors
The vaccine for HPV works in either males or females, and it works best when administered before the onset of sexual activity
Only females are at risk of developing cancer from HPV, so they are the only people who should receive HPV vaccine
In the US, men are typically diagnosed as having AIDS more readily than women because physicians often don't think to look for HIV in women at first since the incidence of HIV infection is higher in men and because women often develop opportunistic diseases or cancers than this that men develop as the infection progresses
You observed profuse, severe diarrhea to dehydration in a patient. Serologic testing revealed the presence of antibodies to HIV in her blood. The disease signs in this patient most likely resulted from her having what?
Which of these statements about sexually transmitted diseases is TRUE
HIV originated in Africa in 1980, and was spread throughout the world primarily by homosexual contact
HIV and syphilis, but neither hepatitis nor genital warts, develop into systemic infections
Genital herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia infection can all increase the chances of infection with HIV…they are gateway diseases
Both HIV and genital warts, but not genital herpes, are likely to lead to secondary infections of other organisms
Which of these statements about sexually transmitted diseases is TRUE?
Vaccines are available for prevention of both hepatitis B and C, as well as for genital warts
Gardasil is effective in females, but not in males, despite great efforts to modify the vaccine so it would be more widely applicable
Once a person is infected with the etiological agents of these diseases, no antibiotic cure exists for genital herpes, genital warts or hepatitis B
Although there are medications (CTAs) that can help people infected with HIV manage their disease and live longer, they do not infection or AIDS
Select all of the following which can be transmitted from mother to infant