Which of the following is a term for a cyclic behavior that changes yearly?
Mammals have circadian rhythms:
only for their sleep/activity cycle.
only for frequency of eating and drinking
for sleep/wake cycles as well as many other behaviors
only for body temperature only and eating behavior
Based on research, it has been determined that a free-running human circadian rhythm appears:
to be shorter than 24 hours.
to be exactly 24 hours
to be just over 24 hours
to be closer to 30 hours
Of the following, which one is a commonly used way to consistently adjust the circadian rhythms of people in our culture?
exposure to alarm clocks
exposure to very dim lights
working different schedules every day
eating a big meal before going to sleep
A cue which is used to reset a circadian rhythm would be called a:
Which of the following is a protein coded for by the gene tim?
After damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the body:
cannot generate biological rhythms at all.
still has rhythms in synchrony with environmental patterns of light and dark.
still has a rhythms, but they are more variable, and inconsistent
still has rhythms, but they can only be reset by artificial light.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is found in the:
One of the hormones which is strongly implicated in the maintenance of circadian rhythms is:
follicle stimulating hormone
Beta waves are characteristic of what type of activity?
dosing off into sleep
Stage One sleep is most characterized by:
the appearance of theta waves
sleep spindles and K-complexes
predominance of delta waves
the first appearance of delta waves
Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristic of which sleep stage?
Stage 4 of sleep is composed of a majority of which frequency of EEG patterns?
The acronym "REM" stands for:
remembering every memory
rapid eye movement
reflexive EEG modes
retina encephalon medulla
Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?
increased probability of dreaming
small eye movements
EEG patterns resembling wakefulness
tense and active postural muscles
PGO (waves) is an abbreviation for which of the following?
paradoxical gradual onset
pons geniculate occipital
psychasthenia glyceric onomatopoeia
During REM sleep:
it is normal for a person to behaviorally act out their dreams
females commonly experience orgasms
males typically attain erections
delta waves predominate the EEG
For a normal person, about how long does a single cycle of sleep (from stage 1 to stage 4 and back to stage 1 again) lst?
Caffeine in coffee or tea typically keeps someone awake by:
blocking adenosine in the brain
working as a serotonin agonist
working as an acetylcholine antagonist
Which of the following is not characteristic of narcolepsy?
sudden onset of sleep at inappropriate times
What is involved in sleep apnea?
involuntary movements of the arms and legs during sleep
inability to breathe while sleeping
tendency to fall asleep suddenly during the day
Statistically, which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from sleep apnea?
a young, thin female
an elderly, average weight female
an old, thin male
a middle-aged, overweight male
The diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy includes:
sleep without dreams
REM onset with the sleep attack
muscle twitches during a spindle
Stage 4 EEGs at the start of sleep
People who move around vigorously during dreams, apparently acting out those dreams, have which of the following condition?
REM without atonia
periodic limb movement disorder
Waking suddenly in a sweat, feeling scared and anxious would be most associated with:
REM behavior disorder
Night terrors, sleep walking and sleep talking are most likely to occur in which stage of sleep?
What is grinding ones teeth at night called?
Which of the following is also a term for bed-wetting?
Which of the following theories for why people sleep involves a recalibration of neuromuscular connections?
repair and restoration
motor pathway reset
Which of the following has been proposed as a theory that accounts for dreaming?
restoration of metabolic functions
emotional variance reduction
According to the evolutionary theory of sleep, what is the primary function of sleep?
to conserve energy during periods of environmental inactivity
to promote brain development
to restore body functions that were exhausted during wakefulness
to enable the person to reexperience, in dreams, the events of the past.
The SRY gene will code for:
the development of the female reproductive organs
the development of the testes
the secretion of estrogen into the blood stream
the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the hypothalamus
Mullerian ducts can be found in:
genetic female fetuses only
genetic male fetuses only
both female and male fetuses early in development
both female and male fetuses until days before birth
What are the tissue precursors for the male reproductive structures called?
If you exposed a female rat to testosterone during a critical period early in life, her hypothalamus will:
develop more like a typical male rat's hypothalamus
develop a cyclic pattern of hormone release
decrease in size
Follicle-stimulating hormone is released by the:
Gonadropin releasing hormone will be secreted by the:
In a human female, the hormones of LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak:
in the first month of pregnancy
at the start of the menstrual period
at the end of the menstrual period
around the time of ovulation
Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:
increasing the release of estrogen
increasing the release of FSH
interfering with the feedback cycle between the ovaries and pituitary
inactivating both ovaries
Which of the following is not a typical male sexual behavior?
When female mice synchronize their estrous cycles, it would be called the:
When the odor of a male mouse accelerates the onset of puberty in female mice, it would be called the:
Someone with Turner's syndrome would have what genetic complement of sex chromosomes?
Someone with androgen insensitivity is genetically:
female, but looks intermediate between male and female
female, but fails to show any changes at puberty
male, looks like a normal male, but behaves more like a female
male, but develops looking more like a female
IN the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who are regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What is this condition called?
congenital adrenal hyperplasia