Prather Test 3

Question 1 of 45

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Which of the following is a term for a cyclic behavior that changes yearly?

Select one of the following:

  • circadian

  • ultradian

  • circannual

  • zeitgeber

Question 2 of 45

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Mammals have circadian rhythms:

Select one of the following:

  • only for their sleep/activity cycle.

  • only for frequency of eating and drinking

  • for sleep/wake cycles as well as many other behaviors

  • only for body temperature only and eating behavior

Question 3 of 45

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Based on research, it has been determined that a free-running human circadian rhythm appears:

Select one of the following:

  • to be shorter than 24 hours.

  • to be exactly 24 hours

  • to be just over 24 hours

  • to be closer to 30 hours

Question 4 of 45

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Of the following, which one is a commonly used way to consistently adjust the circadian rhythms of people in our culture?

Select one of the following:

  • exposure to alarm clocks

  • exposure to very dim lights

  • working different schedules every day

  • eating a big meal before going to sleep

Question 5 of 45

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A cue which is used to reset a circadian rhythm would be called a:

Select one of the following:

  • zeitgeber

  • phase shifter

  • zeitgeist

  • alpha spike

Question 6 of 45

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Which of the following is a protein coded for by the gene tim?

Select one of the following:

  • period

  • timeless

  • per

  • amyloid

Question 7 of 45

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After damage to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the body:

Select one of the following:

  • cannot generate biological rhythms at all.

  • still has rhythms in synchrony with environmental patterns of light and dark.

  • still has a rhythms, but they are more variable, and inconsistent

  • still has rhythms, but they can only be reset by artificial light.

Question 8 of 45

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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is found in the:

Select one of the following:

  • thalamus

  • infundibulum

  • midbrain

  • hypothalamus

Question 9 of 45

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One of the hormones which is strongly implicated in the maintenance of circadian rhythms is:

Select one of the following:

  • pineal juice

  • vasopressin

  • follicle stimulating hormone

  • melatonin

Question 10 of 45

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Beta waves are characteristic of what type of activity?

Select one of the following:

  • NREM sleep

  • nightmares

  • dosing off into sleep

  • wakefulness

Question 11 of 45

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Stage One sleep is most characterized by:

Select one of the following:

  • the appearance of theta waves

  • sleep spindles and K-complexes

  • predominance of delta waves

  • the first appearance of delta waves

Question 12 of 45

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Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristic of which sleep stage?

Select one of the following:

  • stage 1

  • stage 2

  • stage 3

  • stage 4

Question 13 of 45

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Stage 4 of sleep is composed of a majority of which frequency of EEG patterns?

Select one of the following:

  • alpha

  • beta

  • theta

  • delta

Question 14 of 45

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The acronym "REM" stands for:

Select one of the following:

  • remembering every memory

  • rapid eye movement

  • reflexive EEG modes

  • retina encephalon medulla

Question 15 of 45

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Which of the following is NOT associated with REM sleep?

Select one of the following:

  • increased probability of dreaming

  • small eye movements

  • EEG patterns resembling wakefulness

  • tense and active postural muscles

Question 16 of 45

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PGO (waves) is an abbreviation for which of the following?

Select one of the following:

  • paradoxical gradual onset

  • psycho-galvanic oscillation

  • pons geniculate occipital

  • psychasthenia glyceric onomatopoeia

Question 17 of 45

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During REM sleep:

Select one of the following:

  • it is normal for a person to behaviorally act out their dreams

  • females commonly experience orgasms

  • males typically attain erections

  • delta waves predominate the EEG

Question 18 of 45

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For a normal person, about how long does a single cycle of sleep (from stage 1 to stage 4 and back to stage 1 again) lst?

Select one of the following:

  • 5-10 minutes

  • 90-100 minutes

  • 4 hours

  • 7-8 hours

Question 19 of 45

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Caffeine in coffee or tea typically keeps someone awake by:

Select one of the following:

  • blocking adenosine in the brain

  • inhibiting norepinephrine

  • working as a serotonin agonist

  • working as an acetylcholine antagonist

Question 20 of 45

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Which of the following is not characteristic of narcolepsy?

Select one of the following:

  • sudden onset of sleep at inappropriate times

  • cataplexies

  • bruxisms

  • hypnogogic hallucinations

Question 21 of 45

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What is involved in sleep apnea?

Select one of the following:

  • involuntary movements of the arms and legs during sleep

  • inability to breathe while sleeping

  • tendency to fall asleep suddenly during the day

  • sleep-talking

Question 22 of 45

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Statistically, which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from sleep apnea?

Select one of the following:

  • a young, thin female

  • an elderly, average weight female

  • an old, thin male

  • a middle-aged, overweight male

Question 23 of 45

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The diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy includes:

Select one of the following:

  • sleep without dreams

  • REM onset with the sleep attack

  • muscle twitches during a spindle

  • Stage 4 EEGs at the start of sleep

Question 24 of 45

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People who move around vigorously during dreams, apparently acting out those dreams, have which of the following condition?

Select one of the following:

  • somnambulism

  • REM without atonia

  • periodic limb movement disorder

  • cataplexy

Question 25 of 45

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Waking suddenly in a sweat, feeling scared and anxious would be most associated with:

Select one of the following:

  • REM behavior disorder

  • night terrors

  • periodic limb movement disorder

  • cataplexy

Question 26 of 45

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Night terrors, sleep walking and sleep talking are most likely to occur in which stage of sleep?

Select one of the following:

  • stage one

  • stage two

  • stage four

  • REM

Question 27 of 45

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What is grinding ones teeth at night called?

Select one of the following:

  • nocturnal enuresis

  • myoclonus

  • bruxism

  • incubus

Question 28 of 45

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Which of the following is also a term for bed-wetting?

Select one of the following:

  • nocturnal enuresis

  • myoclonus

  • bruxism

  • incubus

Question 29 of 45

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Which of the following theories for why people sleep involves a recalibration of neuromuscular connections?

Select one of the following:

  • repair and restoration

  • evolutionary

  • motor pathway reset

  • psychoanalytic

Question 30 of 45

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Which of the following has been proposed as a theory that accounts for dreaming?

Select one of the following:

  • restoration of metabolic functions

  • activation-synthesis theory

  • homeostasis theory

  • emotional variance reduction

Question 31 of 45

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According to the evolutionary theory of sleep, what is the primary function of sleep?

Select one of the following:

  • to conserve energy during periods of environmental inactivity

  • to promote brain development

  • to restore body functions that were exhausted during wakefulness

  • to enable the person to reexperience, in dreams, the events of the past.

Question 32 of 45

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The SRY gene will code for:

Select one of the following:

  • the development of the female reproductive organs

  • the development of the testes

  • the secretion of estrogen into the blood stream

  • the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the hypothalamus

Question 33 of 45

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Mullerian ducts can be found in:

Select one of the following:

  • genetic female fetuses only

  • genetic male fetuses only

  • both female and male fetuses early in development

  • both female and male fetuses until days before birth

Question 34 of 45

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What are the tissue precursors for the male reproductive structures called?

Select one of the following:

  • Mullerian system

  • Turner's system

  • Wolffian system

  • Kinsey's system

Question 35 of 45

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If you exposed a female rat to testosterone during a critical period early in life, her hypothalamus will:

Select one of the following:

  • develop more like a typical male rat's hypothalamus

  • develop a cyclic pattern of hormone release

  • decrease in size

  • become inactive

Question 36 of 45

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Follicle-stimulating hormone is released by the:

Select one of the following:

  • pineal gland

  • posterior pituitary

  • anterior pituitary

  • ovum

Question 37 of 45

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Gonadropin releasing hormone will be secreted by the:

Select one of the following:

  • hypothalamus

  • pituitary

  • testes

  • ovaries

Question 38 of 45

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In a human female, the hormones of LH, FSH, and estradiol reach a peak:

Select one of the following:

  • in the first month of pregnancy

  • at the start of the menstrual period

  • at the end of the menstrual period

  • around the time of ovulation

Question 39 of 45

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Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:

Select one of the following:

  • increasing the release of estrogen

  • increasing the release of FSH

  • interfering with the feedback cycle between the ovaries and pituitary

  • inactivating both ovaries

Question 40 of 45

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Which of the following is not a typical male sexual behavior?

Select one of the following:

  • intromission

  • pelvic thrusting

  • lordosis

  • ejaculation

Question 41 of 45

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When female mice synchronize their estrous cycles, it would be called the:

Select one of the following:

  • Lee-Boot effect

  • Whitten effect

  • Vandenbergh effect

  • Bruce effect

Question 42 of 45

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When the odor of a male mouse accelerates the onset of puberty in female mice, it would be called the:

Select one of the following:

  • Lee-Boot effect

  • Whitten effect

  • Vandenbergh effect

  • Bruce effect

Question 43 of 45

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Someone with Turner's syndrome would have what genetic complement of sex chromosomes?

Select one of the following:

  • XXX

  • XYY

  • X0

  • XXY

Question 44 of 45

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Someone with androgen insensitivity is genetically:

Select one of the following:

  • female, but looks intermediate between male and female

  • female, but fails to show any changes at puberty

  • male, looks like a normal male, but behaves more like a female

  • male, but develops looking more like a female

Question 45 of 45

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IN the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who are regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What is this condition called?

Select one of the following:

  • congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  • 5-alpha-reductase deficiency

  • androgen insensitivity

  • Mullerian insufficiency

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Prather Test 3

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