In the stages of phonological development, which of the stages are at 12-18 months approximately?
During what stage do children of different nationalities sound different?
The consonants 'm' and 'n' are what type of sound?
What are the types of phonological errors?
Virtuous errors and overgeneralisations
Skinner believed there was an innate mechanism known as the LAD.
What are the problems of the LAD?
All children gain the same features at the same time.
Similar grammar is used throughout languages.
No location of the mechanism is found.
Underestimates the significance of Skinner's imitation theory.
It is based on anecdotal evidence.
Which of the following are contextual cues?
Intonation, stress and non-verbal communication.
Intonation, person's name and contextual cues.
Holophrases, stress and grammatical structures.
LADs, stress and non-verbal communication.
Name the types of holophrases.
Imperatives, exclamatives, intergratives and declaratives.
Exclamatives, telegraphic, naming and modifiers.
Interrogatives, declaratives, exclamatives and imperatives.
Declaratives, proto-word, actions and events.
50%of first words were nouns.
What was the percentage of personal/social words?
Nouns are function words.
Calling a cat a dog is underextension.
Who said overextension is more common?
What are the three stages of linking lexical and semantic development?
Labelling, packaging and network building.
Labelling, requesting and protesting.
Holophrase, two word and telegraphic.
Inflectional morphology is where new words are created through prefixes and suffixes.
How do you work out the mean letter utterance?
Add morphemes. This does not include bound morphemes.
Add morphemes. This includes bound morphemes.
Divide by the number of people.
Divide by the number of utterances.
Which of the following account for the morphemes developed in the post-telegraphic stage of morphological development?
Present tense progressive: -ing.
Past tense regular -ed.
Discovery learning is learning through doing as thought shapes language.
Adverbials are parts of the clause that can't be removed.
Wh- questions are more difficult to form than yes/no questions.
Aitchinson developed the stages of questions and negatives.
Jean Berko proved overgeneralisations occur through the Wug test.
Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, representational, imaginative and heuristic were introduced by who?
In play, young children often we use props/pivots, whereas, older children use their imagination.
Concrete operational is the stage where object permanence develops.
Name the features common in CDS.
Prosodic features, e.g. high pitch.
Repetition of sentence frames.
Short elliptical sentences.
Why are animals used as characters in reading books?
They are not humans and they are boring.
Able to personify emotion, they are fun and subvert the stereotype.
What are the stages of Brumer's LASS in developing reading?
What factors influence language change?
Wars and invasions.
Migration, travel and globalisation.
Science and technology.
Social, cultural and ideological changes.
Diminutive suffix softens the meaning.
One of the ways that language changes is through adapting/reusing words, examples include:
Amelioration is where language loses status and takes a more negative meaning.
Orthography is the study of punctuation.
ſ was replaced by the s in the 19th century.
When was Johnson's dictionary developed which was the most popular and important in the process of standardisation?
Jean Aitchinson believed in the 'crumbling castle view', the 'infectious disease assumption' and the 'damp spoon'.
What are the features that Jonathan Swift believed language was decaying as a result?
Dr Johnson invented the first dictionary.
Why is language standardised?
Prescriptivists hate all language.
It gives language prestige.
It gives language a national identity.
It reintroduces Morse code.
It allows people of the same language to communicate effectively.
It prevents language being stolen.
Norman Fairclough brought forward the idea of informalisation.