Which of the following is NOT a step in long - term potentiation of glutamertergic synapse?
High frequency of action potentials in presynaptic cell
Release of glutamate
Glutamate binds to Na and Ca channels
Na and Mg enter the post-synaptic cell
Secondary messages induce long - lasting increase in glutamate receptors and sensitivity
If the thalamus was not functioning to its full capacity, which sense would be least affected?
In the presence of light, the bipolar cells will become _________ in the ON Pathway, while the bipolar cells would become____________ in the OFF Pathway.
None of the above
If the lateral inhibition mechanism was not functional in your sensory system, which of the following would not occur?
localization of a stimulus sit
decrease in stimulus duration
summation of afferent neuron action potentials
amplification of a stimulus
If the hair cells in the ampulla of the ear were mutated, what would happens to the vestibular system?
Loss of eye muscle control
Loss of maintenance of upright posture and balance
Loss of conscious awareness of the position or acceleration of the body
All of the above
The sensation of pain in the left arm when one is having a heart attack is known as:
c. Pain localization
d. Referred Pain
e. A mutation in the nociceptors
In order for the skeletal muscle fiber to relax _____ must occur.
a. Hydrolysis of ATP by Na+/K+-ATPase in the plasma membrane
b. Binding of ATP to myosin
c. Hydrolysis of ATP by Ca2+-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
d. Hydrolysis of ATP by myosin
How does the excitation (depolarization) of the cardiac nodes flow through the atrial and
ventriole portions of the heart? (from start to finish)
a. AV node, SA node, His bundle, Purkinje fibers
b. SA node, Av node, His bundle, Purkinje fibers
c. Av node, SA node, Purkinje fibers, His bundle
d. SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers, His bundle
In the cardiac system, decreasing blood pressure would also affect which of the following?
a. increase net filtration pressure
b. increase πC
c. decrease net filtration pressure
d. decrease πC
In the cardiac system, if arterial pressure is decreased, what is the body’s way to
compensate for this?
there is a decrease in baroreceptor firing, which increases sympathetic
b. there is an increase in baroreceptor firing, which increases sympathetic response
c. there is a decrease in baroreceptor firing, which increases parasympathetic response
d. there is a decrease in baroreceptor firing, which decrease sympathetic response
When at the top of Mt. Everest, less oxygen is available and therefore PO2 levels are decreased. PO2 levels are sensed by the ________ which causes ________ firing and contraction of respiratory muscles which attempts to return PO2 levels back to normal.
a. Central chemoreceptors, increased
b. Peripheral chemoreceptors, increased
c. Central chemoreceptors, decreased
d. Peripheral chemoreceptors, decreased
Reduction in surfactant in the alveolar cells would:
1) Decrease compliance within the lung, making it harder to expand
2) Increase surface tension at the air-water interfaces within the alveoli
3) Increase the cohesive forces between water molecules
4) Increase compliance within the lung, making it harder to expand
The afferent arteriole in the kidney has dilated. What effects does this have on the P_GC (glomerular capillary pressure) and GFR (glomerular filtration rate)? (Figure 14.9)
A. Decreased P_GC; increased GFR
B. Increased P_GC; increased GFR
C. Decreased P_GC; decreased GFR
D. Increased P_GC; decreased GFR
E. None of the above
If an individual experiences an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, it would result from which of the following:HC
A. A decrease in aldosterone secretion
B. An increase in aldosterone secretion
C. A decrease in plasma angiotensin II
D. An increase in arterial pressure
One of the negative feedback systems of high [HCl] in relation to cephalic and gastric control include:
A. Gastrin secretion on the parietal cells
B. Histamine secretion on the parietal cells
*C. Somatostatin secretion on the parietal cells
D. Luminal distension of amino acids and peptides
E. Enteric neural activity on the parietal cells
How is increased acidity in the duodenum hormonally regulated?
A. Increased neural activity affects the parietal cell to increase bicarbonate secretion.
B. Bicarbonate is secreted from the small intestine, which causes the pancreas to secrete selectin.
*C. Secretin is secreted from the small intestine, which causes the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate.
D. CCK is secreted from the duodenum, inhibiting acid secretion from the stomach
What is the fate of ingested amino acids in excess of those needed to maintain a stable rate of protein turnover?
a. Increase in body protein
b. Converted to glycogen
c. Converted to carbohydrate or fat
d. Transported via the blood to adipose tissue
What is the first line of defense in the maintenance of the plasma glucose concentration within a homeostatic range?
A. Hepatic glycogenolysis
B. Increase GLUT-4 concentration
E. none of the above
The catabolism of triglycerides in adipose tissue yields what?
A. Fatty acids only
B. Glycerol only
C. Fatty acids and glycerol
D. Sterols and glycerol
A few hours into post absorptive state, through which pathway are proteins converted into glucose ?
C. Oxidative Phosphorylation
D. Alpha-keto acid pathway
Besides plasma concentration of glucose, what other factors stimulate insulin secretion
C. Increased amino acid concentration
D. A and C
E. All of the above
How does the liver respond to decreased levels of plasma insulin?
a. Increase glucose release; increase ketone synthesis
b. Increase glucose synthesis; Increase ketone release
c. Decrease glucose release; decrease ketone synthesis
d. Decrease glucose synthesis; decrease ketone release
In skeletal muscle, as insulin secretion increases,
a) blood glucose increases
b) blood fatty acids increase
c) protein synthesis increases
d) blood amino acids increase
Which factor(s) do NOT cause calorigenic effect
B. Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
D. B and C
E. None of the above