What is important about the lateral horn in relation to motor function?
It is the part of the spinal cord where motor output originates from the autonomic nervous system
It carries ascending signals to the brain
It is the part of the spinal cord where sensory input travels from the periphery to the motor cortex
What is the joining of the sensory and motor fibres called (shown by the green circle)?
Dorsal root ganglion
The spinal cord exists between which spinal levels?
C1 to L2
C2 to L1
C2 to S5
C1 to S5
How many spinal nerves are there in total?
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
How many sacral spinal nerves are there?
How many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?
The cervical plexus is composed of what spinal nerves?
The brachial plexus is composed of what spinal nerves?
The lumbar plexus is composed of what spinal nerves?
The sacral plexus is composed of what spinal nerves?
A dermatome is what?
An area of skin with single spinal nerve innervation
An area of muscle with single spinal nerve innervation
An area of muscle with dual spinal nerve innervation
An area of skin with dual spinal nerve innervation
A myotome is what?
Chickenpox may reactivate as shingles and effect particular spinal nerves, causing a rash that maps to a particular area of skin that the relevant nerve innervates (dermatome).
What does the red question mark show?
What does the purple question mark show?
What does the orange question mark show?
What is the most common neurotransmitter found at post-ganglionic neurones of the sympathetic nervous system?
What is the most common neurotransmitter found at post-ganglionic neurones of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract by parasympathetic nerve fibres helps to increase gut motility.
What routes can a pre-ganglionic sympathetic neuron take?
Travel through the white ramus communicans and ascend the sympathetic chain where it will synapse in the sympathetic ganglion at a higher level
Travel through the white ramus communicans and descend the sympathetic chain where it will synapse in the sympathetic ganglion at a lower level
Travel through the white ramus communicans and synapse in the sympathetic ganglion at the same level
Travel through the white ramus communicans and pass through the sympathetic ganglion without synapsing
Most organs are dual innervated by both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. They always have antagonistic effects to one another.
In some organs that are innervated exclusively by the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system, how is autonomic activity regulated?
Like a volume control
Parasympathetic hormones circulate in the blood to counter sympathetic effects and vice versa
What is meant by diffuse neurotransmission? Where does it occur?
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
A single neuron branches into many varicosities which contain neurotransmitter that can be released to co-ordinate widespread effects
A single neuron releases neurotransmitter that causes an effect in one particular target
Sympathetic activity causes vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle blood vessels.
Post-ganglionic neurons that innervate sweat glands, part of the sympathetic nervous system, release Noradrenaline to stimulate sweat glands.
The SNS and PNS have an antagonistic effect on the same muscle which causes pupillary dilation and constriction respectively.
What receptors does Ach act at?
What receptor does noradrenaline act at?
Name the agonists of muscarinic receptors
Name the competitive antagonists of muscarinic receptors
Name a non-competitive antagonist at nicotinic receptors
Noradrenaline binding at alpha adrenoreceptors causes vasoconstriction.
The heart contains beta 1 adrenoreceptors. What effect does the sympathetic nervous system produce in the heart?
Increased heart rate
Decreased heart rate
The lungs contains beta 2 adrenoreceptors. What effect does the sympathetic nervous system produce in the lung?
Blood vessels may contain beta 2 adrenoreceptors. What effect does the sympathetic nervous system produce in the blood vessels?
The bladder contains beta 3 adrenoreceptors. What effect does the sympathetic nervous system produce in the bladder?
What myenteric plexus is found between which two layers of the gastrointestinal tract?
What submucosal plexus is found between which two layers of the gastrointestinal tract?
The myenteric plexus is the co-ordinator of muscular reflexes such as peristalsis.
What excitatory neurotransmitters help to contract the gut in peristalsis (green question mark)?
What inhibitory neurotransmitters help to relax the gut in peristalsis (red question mark)?
The submucosal plexus co-ordinates secretory enzyme and acid release in response to...
The CNS can influence the ENS.
The myenteric plexus releases vasoactive substances.