Which of these is NOT a risk factor for formation of Renal Calculi?
Industrial exposure to arylamine (AZO) dyes
Renal calculi are composed of crystals and proteins
Kidney stone formation requires what for formation? (more than 1 correct answer)
Supersaturation of salts
Ischemia of the surrounding tissue
Presence or absence of stone inhibitors
Growth through crystallisation or agglomeration
Precipitation of the salts from liquid to a solid state
Which medical condition is a risk factor for Renal Calculi?
Faulty P53 Gene
Acute Tubular Necrosis is the most common cause of AKI?
Acute tubular necrosis is - ?
Collection of signs associated with disorders affecting the kidneys
Destruction of tubules and shut down of kidney function
Adenocarcinomas that usually arise from tubular epithelium commonly in the renal cortex
Inflammation of the renal tubules
Causes of Acute Tubular Necrosis include - ? (more than 1 correct answer)
Radiographic contrast agents
What is the definition of Nocturia?
the presence of blood in the urine
increased urinary output
blood urea nitrogen
increased production of urine at night
What is the definition of Azotaemia?
reduced urinary output
Polyuria is a decrease in urinary output
Uraemia is azotaemia plus other metabolic and electrolyte abnormalities such as gastro
Secondary bladder cancer develops by -
Metastasis via lymphatics to liver
Invasion of cancer from bordering organs
Renal Calculi growth
Hard bowel movements
Bladder cancer represents 4% of all malignant cancers
Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include all of the following EXCEPT -
The most likely age and gender of bladder cancer development is -?
Males < 60YO
Males > 60YO
Females < 60YO
Females > 60YO
Risk factors of Renal Cell Carcinomas are - ? (more than 1 correct answer)
What percentage of cancer deaths can be attributed to renal cell carcinomas?
UTI is inflammation of the urinary epithelium usually caused by bacteria from gut flora
UTI's are predisposed by all of the following except -?
Sexually active and pregnant women
Urinary tract obstruction
Individuals with indwelling catheters
Differential Diagnosis of UTI include which of the following - ? (more than 1 correct answer)
Chlamydial genitourinary infections
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Definitive treatment for UTI is fluid therapy?
Cystitis is inflammation of the - ?
The most common bacteria causing Cystitis is?
For what reasons does cystitis effect woman more than men? (More than 1 correct answer)
Sperm entering the vagina causes bacteria to spread
Closeness of urethra to anus
In what percentage of cases is Cystitis asymptomatic?
What are the signs and symptoms of Cystitis? (More than 1 correct answer)
Nausea and vomiting
Chronic renal failure results in end stage renal disease?
Chronic renal failure results from the gradual loss of _______ until the remainder cannot carry out normal function
Definitive treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease includes all of the following EXCEPT -
Pyelonephritis is infection of the lower urinary tract.
Which of these pictures is pyelonephritis?
The signs and symptoms of Pyelonephritis include all of the following except - ?
A common cause of pyelonephritis is?
Male sexual trauma
Signs associated with nephritic syndrome are all of the following except - ?
Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomerulus caused by which of the following? (More and 1 answer may be correct)
Syndromes associated with glomerulonephritis include all of the following except - ?
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Asymptomatic haematuria and/or proteinuria
Acute necrotic uretritis
Acute nephritic syndrome
The classifications of AKI are - ? (There may be more than 1 correct answer)
The correct order of the phases of AKI is - ?
Diuresis -> Oliguria -> Recovery
Oliguria -> Diuresis -> Recovery
Recovery -> Diuresis -> Oliguria
Diuresis -> Recovery -> Oliguria