Where something is located in relation to something else is referred to as...
Friction of distance
The type of map that shows areas with statistical values in 3-5 categories is known as a...
Graduated circle map
Dot distribution map
None of the above
A ratio of the number of items within a defined unit of area measures...
A special type of map designed to reveal the nature of local topography is called
Peters projection map
Local-global continuum map
Robinson projection map
Linear, centralized, random and grid patterns help define the
Organization of Earth's surfaces into distinct areas
Physical gap or distance between two objects
Arrangement of objects on Earth's surface in relation to other objects
Distance between objects on a map and the distance between objects on Earth's surface
Position of something on Earth's surface
Which of the following examples best illustrates the concept of cognitive distance?
Distance expressed in terms of how far the average person can walk in one day.
Distance measured in terms of minutes or hours.
Distance expressed in terms of the perceived amount of space separating one place from another.
Distance expressed in terms of the amount of money it will cost to travel from one place to another.
Distance measured in terms of miles or kilometers.
Which of the following has a location at 180 degrees longitude?
Tropic of Cancer
International Date Line
Which if the following is the most important function of a toponym?
To determine precise absolute locations on Earth
To define the mathematical relations between the size of an area on the map and its actual size
To define a location relative to other human and physical features on a landscape
To distinguish a particular place from other places on Earth
To identify similarities of physical or cultural features within a region
Which if the following major cities is located at approximately 40 degrees N latitude and 74 degrees W longitude?
New York City
Which of the following is not a key element on a map?
Geographers consistently ask...
When and why questions
When, who and what questions
When and where questions
Why of where questions
How and what questions
The idea that spatial interaction declines as distance increases is known as...
The gravity model
The map above represents what kind of projection
Cylindrical projection that makes middle-latitude countries look smaller than countries int he tropics
A planar projection with parallels appearing as circles
A Robinson projection that attempts to balance distortions in shape, size, distance and direction
A Mercator projection with distorted land areas far distant from the equator
A Peters projection that distorts the shape of land areas
Longitude is to the prime meridian as latitude is to the...
Tropic of Capricorn
The ability to travel and communicate over greater distances and shorter amounts of time, due to technological innovations such as the airplane, automobile, telephone and internet represents the idea of...
Which of the following is NOT an example of a change in relative location?
Population migration westward stimulates economic activity in a small western town.
A community decimated by contagious disease moves to a location further inland.
A city gains revenue and population after a new Interstate Highway is built through it.
Towns east of a city begin to lose population as towns west of a city begin to gain population.
A town loses its appeal as a vacation destination as a result of eroding beaches.
GPS devices determine
x, y, and z values for an object
Longitude and latitude
Relative location within 100 yards
Thematic maps that employ a range of color tones to illustrate how particular values vary across pre-defined areas such as countries, provinces or states are referred to as...
Proportional symbol maps
One method of organizing Earth's surface into regions emphasizes core and peripheral areas. This method identifies...
GPS stands fo
Geographic Polarity System
Geographic Positioning Science
Global Positioning System
Global People Standards
All maps have...
Spatial coordinates of latitude and longitude express
Which of the following best describes the SITE of Manhattan?
An important center for international trade and commerce
An island bordered by the Hudson and East rivers
A regional transportation hub for the Northeastern U.S.
An urbane center located two hours northeast of Philadelphia by train
A midway point along an urban corridor stretching from Boston to Washington, DC.
Which of the following US cities is a site on the Mississippi River and is situated as a major port for offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico?
A subjective image of an area informed by individual perceptions and experiences in that area is known as...
Remote sensing is often used during peace time to analyze...
Loss of prime agricultural land
Irrigation needs for farmers
Spread of desertification
All of the above
Which of the following characteristics of a place is most important in determining its centrality or isolation?
Physical site characteristics
A traveler must set the clock back 24 hours when...
Crossing the 180-degree longitude line from America to Asia
Passing over the North Pole
Passing over the South Pole
Crossing the equator going south
Crossing the 180-degree longitude line from Asia to America
This geographer who developed the multiple hearth theory with respect to agriculture was
Henrich von Thunen
A method for representing the three-dimensional surface of the Earth on the two-dimensional surface of a map is known as...
The principle of distance decay describes...
A negative correlation between distance and degree of relation
No correlation between distance and degree of relation
An uncertain correlation between distance and degree of relation
A neutral correlation between distance and degree of relation
A positive correlation between distance and degree of relation
Which of the following concepts refers to the spatial arrangement of items or features within a given area?
Which of the following is a geographic question?
Why does urban sprawl create transportation problems?
What geographical benefits are there to the "eat local" movement?
Where did Brian Berry base his studies of Central Place Theory?
Why does the absence of rank-size rule impact customers?
All of the Above
The process in which technology is increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world's business community is often referred to as...
Geographic Information Systems use multiple layers of information to produce ___________________________.
Infrared satellite images
The geographical region whose center is located along the equator and whose area extends roughly 20 degrees north and south of the equator is known as the....
Rain forest region
Which map projection is most distorted at high latitudes?
Equal area value
The idea that material innovations such as new technologies diffuse more rapidly than newly exposed cultures can adequately respond and adapt to them best illustrates the idea of...
Which of the following was least accurately represented on Hecataeus' 5th Century B.C.E map of the world?
The Black Sea
Which of the following cartographic terms describes the location of a place in terms of its angular distance north or south of the equator?
All of the following are intervening obstacles to the flow of goods EXCEPT...
Major bodies of water
Toponyms tend to fall into which of the following categories in the United States?
Transplanted from somewhere else
Mental maps could be especially useful for...
Chamber of Commerce members
Determining shopping habits by marketing firms
College admissions officers
"Sense of place" refers to...
The unique situational characteristics
Uniform landscape of a place
Characteristics of the founder of a place
The unique physical site characteristics
The unique physical and human attributes that gives a place character
The concept that technologies shrink functional space between places is called...
The American geographer who developed a school of cultural geography focused on cultural landscape was...
Alexander von Humbolt
Which of the following situations is the best examples of time-space compression?
Internet connections through a personal computer
Circular spatial pattern of a settlement and land use
Relatively close match between official local time and solar time
Isolation of people who live in a region's periphery
The perception of cultural unity of people on the Korean peninsula
Geographers often use this type of investigative method to examine issues.
The geographer who first calculated the Earth's circumference with relative accuracy was...
George Perkins Marsh
Which of the following would be best illustrated by a large-scale map?
Connecting highways between towns in a region
The arrangement of streets in a village
Connections among major world cities
Major road crossings in a town
Major highways that connect regions in a country
The art and science of mapmaking is called...
The Prime Meridian which passes through Greenwich, England is equivalent to which of the following lines of longitude?
270 degrees longitude
90 degrees longitude
180 degrees longitude
0 degrees longitude
45 degrees longitude
In cognitive space, perceived boundaries such as frontiers, horizons and shorelines are known as...
Which of the following maps would be most helpful to a local doctor who is trying to identify the spread of disease among individual children in a particular county?
A map with a scale 1:100
A map with a scale 1:500
A map with a scale 1:50
A map with a scale 1:1000
A map with a scale 1:5
During the process of mapmaking, in which the three-dimensional surface of the Earth is projected onto a flat, two-dimensional surface, all of the following attributes can become distorted EXCEPT...
A hiker is to a contour map as a driver is to...
Mercator projection map
In recent years, a significant intraregional migration has occurred from Afghanistan to...
The United States
In which of the following countries is life expectancy projected to drop the most by the year 2015?
The demographic transition model suggests that as countries industrialize...
Life expectancy will decrease over time
Birth and death rates decrease over time
In-migration increases over time
Fertility rates increase over time
Migration increases from rural to urban areas
The maximum reproductive capacity of a population is known as...
Which total fertility rate is most likely indicative of a country in Stage 5 of the Demographic Transition Model?
Which of the following groups of immigrants came to the US during the early 20th Century primarily because of the push factor of government persecution in their home country?
An infant mortality rate of 40.85 means that in a given country...
The female fertility rate is very high
40.85 percent of all infants die before the age of 1
Life expectancies are very low for all ages
40.85 more births than deaths occur during the course of the year
40.85 infants per 1,000 die before the age of 1.
One criticism of Demographic Transition Theory is that it rests on the prediction that all countries will
Avoid war and famine in the future
Continue to be agriculturally productive
Develop effective population control policies
Successfully avoid the mortality revolution
Which statement about overpopulation is true?
Overpopulation can only occur in less-developed areas
Overpopulation is achieved when the physiological density reaches more than 1,000/km
Overpopulation occurs when an area's population is greater than its carrying capacity
Overpopulation is unlikely because food production potential is unlimited
Which of the following is NOT a result of Overpopulation?
Deforestation in Madagascar
Lack of access to food in Manila
Overcrowding in Mumbai
Low unemployment rates in Tokyo
Squatter settlements in Rio de Janeiro
All of the following are population clusters in the East Asian population concentration EXCEPT
The Korean Peninsula
According to Ravenstein, migrants who move longer distances tend to
Be most affected by distance decay
Choose cities as their destinations
Avoid step migration
Travel in families
Take advantage of intervening opprtunities
In Country A, the crude birth rate is 38 per 1,000 people and the crude death rate is 18 per 1,000 people.
In Country B, the crude birth rate is 18 per 1,000 people and the crude death rate is 9 per 1,000 people.
It is apparent from this data that...
Country A is overpopulated
The population of Country A will double in 35 years
Country A has a larger population than Country B
The population of Country B will double in 15 years
The carrying capacity of both countries are being strained
The first stage of the Demographic Transition Model indicates that...
Total population is increasing with high birth rates and low death rates.
Total population is low and constant with high birth rates and low death rates.
Total population is low and constant with low birth rates and low death rates.
Total population is low and constant with low birth rates and high death rates.
Total population is low and constant with high birth rates and high death rates.
A high dependency rate suggests that a large percentage of the population is
Under 14 years old and over 65 years old.
Between 1 and 64 years old.
65 years old or older
Under 14 years old
Between 14 and 65 years old.
Which population pyramid shows a population that is slowly growing?
Which of the following graphs exhibits a J curve?
Global infant mortality rates over time
Global dependency ratio rateover time
Global birth rates over time
Global population growth over time
All of the above.
The major factor contributing to the explosive population growth in more developed countries (MDCs) during he 19th and 20th centuries was
The diffusion of modern medical practices
The diffusion of vaccines and antibiotics
The diffusion of birth control devices
The diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
The diffusion of family planning programs
Margaret embarked on her move to California. En route to San Diego from her home in Kentucky, she stopped in New Mexico. While in New Mexico, she fell in love with the city of Santa Fe and decided to stay there. In Margaret's migration, Santa Fe represents a(n)...
In Country A, the crude birth rate is 38 per 1,000 people and the crude death rate is 18 per 1,000 people.
In Country B, the crude birth rate is 18 per 1,000 people and the crude death rate is 9 per 1,000 people.
The Natural Increase Rate (NIR) of Country A is
About the same rate as Country B
half the rate of Country B
56 per 1,000
In order to replace its population only, a country needs a total fertility rate of
What differentiates a natural disaster from a natural hazard?
A natural hazard only includes the loss of property
A natural disaster often includes the loss of property and life
A natural hazard is a predictable event
A natural disaster includes only the loss of life.
Which of the following is most likely to have the largest activity space?
A suburban teenager
A retired person living in the city
A school-age child
A middle age suburban male
Suppose that a country's crude birth rate is higher than its crude death rate, but the country's out-migration is greater than the difference between the birth rate and death rate. How would this country's natural increase be affected?
The country would have a natural increase, but only if its immigration policies changed.
The country would have a natural increase.
The country would have a natural increase only if the out-migration was composed of older people.
The country's natural increase would depend on whether most out-migrants were men or women.
The country would not have any natural increase.
Influenza is an example of what type of disease diffusion?
Malaria, which is present in many populations living in tropical or sub-tropical regions, is an exampleof a(n)
The bulge on the left side of Population Pyramid "D" is most likely caused by:
An abnormally high out-migration of females
An influx of illegal aliens
A migrant guest-workers program
A cultural preference for male children
War or famine
Which population pyramid shows a population whose total number is declining?
Overpopulation in a country occurs when...
The country imports food
The country's population outgrows its carrying capacity
Total population reaches 10 billion
Large parts of a country are desert
There is more of one sex than the other.
According to Demographic Transition Theory, during which stages of demographic transition does low growth occur?
Stage I only
Stage II and III only
Stage III only
Stages III and IV only
Stages I and IV only
Which of the following is not a contributing factor to low birth rates in Stage Four of the Demographic Transition Model?
The education of women
Availability of health care
Reliance on subsistence agriculture
Less dependence on child labor
The gravity model predicts
The movement of people, goods and ideas between two locations based on size and distance
The physiological density of a country
Periods of population explosion in a certain geographic region
The rate at which intercontinental migration occurs
The number of people a city can support with available resources
Generation X, which is a group of individuals all born within a defined time interval, is an example of a(n)
Since 1950, this part of the developing world has seen a dramatic increase in population.
Areas away from coasts
Which factor was identified at the 2004 United Nations population conference as key to controlling population growth?
The status of women
The Canadian province of Quebec is demographically different from other Canadian provinces because
It has a larger proportion of people who live in poverty
Its percentage of immigrants is high
Most of its inhabitants speak French as a first language
Its fertility rate is low
It has a higher population density
Which of the following states has the lowest population growth rate?
Which population pyramid best reflects the population structure of Germany?
Which of the following countries most likely has the highest agricultural density?
A population with a relatively young age structure is most likely to be found in
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding population policies in India?
India's government has made few attempts to curtail population growth.
India's successful population policies have most likely prevented the country from being the most populous country in the world as early as 2030.
India has followed China's lead in establishing a "one child policy" on the national level.
Despite policy coordination problems, India's birth rate has dropped by more than half in the last 35 years.
Unlike China, India has had a problem coordinating a centralized population policy.
Which of the following population control examples did Thomas Malthus support?
The upper class paying additional taxes to fund family planning and cleanliness education for the lower class
Relocating cities and towns away from stagnant pools and marshy lands to promote better health among all citizens
Widening city streets in low-income neighborhoods to reduce over-crowding and the spread of disease
Equitably distributing food among all citizens regardless of wealth during times of famine
The upper class utlizing moral restraint to limit family size
Which US state has the highest Natural Increase Rate (NIR)?
The part of the Earth's surface that is physically suitable for permanent human settlement is known as the
A population continuing to grow following a fertility decline due to the large percentage of young people is known as
A J-curve on a population graph indicates
Logarithmic population growth
Linear population growth
Cyclical population growth
Exponential population growth
Baby booms are generally associated with
Times of war
Periods of economic prosperity
Increased number of women in the workforce
Periods of economic hardship
Increased education of women
Which country has a low arithmetic density, but a high physiological density?
In sub-Saharan Africa, out-migration from Rwanda and the Sudan have been caused primarily by
Lack of economic opportunities
Unsanitary conditions in urban areas
Better economic opportunities in surrounding countries
Which of the following measurements would give a demographer the closest prediction of reproductive behavior in a fecund woman in a country?
Infant mortality rate
Crude birth rate
Rate of natural increase
Total fertility rate
Ernst Ravenstein's demographic studies focused mainly on
Natural increases in population
The carrying capacity of an area is based most closely on its
Physiological population density
Arithmetic population density
Globally, the three largest population concentrations are located in
East Asia, West Africa and Europe
Europe, North America and East Asia
Southeast Asia, West Africa and East Asia
East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia
Europe, South Asia and East Asia
Arithmetic population density can be calculated by
Total land area minus total population
Total population minus total population
Total population divided by total land area
Total population multiplied by total land area
Total land area multiplied by total population
Culture is spread by
War and occupation
Television and other media
An isogloss is
A collection of unique words
A boundary between language regions
The transition zone between cultures
A form of language spoken in a local area
Nearly half of all the people in the world speak a language from this language family.
Which of the following cultural traits is important to Americans?
A sense of equality and fairness
Ancestor veneration and worship
A focus on social order over individual rights
A strong state religion
A common language that is used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce is called a...
Which statement about the English language is correct?
It has only two separate dialects: British and American.
Worldwide, there are three times as many native speakers of English as second language speakers.
It is a member of the Latin language branch
It is the official language of the United States
It has been largely influenced by the French language
Hierarchical diffusion is
The spread of an idea from persons of power to other persons.
The rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.
The spread of an idea or trait through the physical movement of people from one place to another.
The spread of an underlying principle or idea.
The practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards, and not by the standards of one's own culture is
All of the following are examples of a functional or nodal region EXCEPT...
The area known as the South
Any market area for a retail businss
The area served by Walmart
The circulation of a daily newspaper
The broadcast area of a radio station
Mahayana, Theraveda and Tantrayana are three branches of
This is the process by which a less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of a more dominant culture.
One culture that uses an ideographic method of writing is
All of the following are Latin-based Romance languages except
Relocation diffusion is
The spread of an idea or trait through the physical movement of people from one place to another
The rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
The spread of an underlying principle or idea
The spread of an idea from persons of power to other persons
The idea that an environment influences, but does not strictly determine, how a culture interacts with the environmentis known as
The largest branch of Islam, to which as many as 80 percent of all Muslims belong, is called
Which of the following is NOT an example of expansion diffusion?
Nine of the above
Which of the following is an example of stimulus diffusion?
The spread of WalMart from Arkansas to the rest of the United States.
The spread of cell phones from the upper class to the middle and lower classes.
The spread of English language to the British colonies.
The spread of drive-through windows from fast food restaurants to liquor stores
A condition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people, is called
Which of the following is NOT an example of a cultural landscape?
An airport runway
Agricultural terracing up a mountainside
The street pattern around a mosque
A rain forest
Which of the following areas would be considered a cultural transition zone?
Southwest USA-Northern Mexico
Eastern Ontario-Western Quebec
Zionism is best defined as the
Jewish claim to Palestine as their rightful national homeland
Shinto ritual of purification involving ceremonial offerings and prayers
Confucianism doctrine that urges respect for one's elders
Islamic custom of pilgrimage to Mecca that must by undertaken at least during every follower's lifetime
Mormon rite of passage that involves a two0year mission of service
The best example of cultural integration (where all elements of society are interwoven with the dominant culture) in the United States is
The Spanish influence in the Southwest
The upland South
The Amish country in Pennsylvania
The Mormon culture region
The Pacific Northwest
A single attribute of culture is called a
All of the following are traits common to Muslim regions of the world EXCEPT
Daily ritual prayers
The idea that cultures will modify the natural landscape to fit their needs is known as the
The theory that the physical environment causes social and cultural development is called
Which of the following is an example of a formal cultural region?
The Bible Belt
The Gulf Coast
The Rocky Mountain Region
A collection of languages within a language branch that share a recent common origin and have relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary is a
Cultural diffusion is
The innovation of a cultural trait
The idea that your own culture is superior to others
The spread of culture traits from one group to another
The isolation of a culture from the rest of the world
Stimulus diffusion is
Which of the following areas is NOT considered a cultural realm?
A regional variant of a language is known as a
Which of the following is an example of relocation diffusion?
The spread of AIDS to the United States.
The spread of baseball to Japan.
The spread of Roman Catholicism to Latin America.
The spread of English to the British Colonies.
Which statement about the diffusion of the English and Chinese languages is true?
The number of English speakers is declining, while the number of Chinese speakers is steadily increasing.
English and Chinese are both spoken worldwide as lingua franca languages.
English has diffused worldwide, while Chinese is spoken mostly in China.
English is spoken in only the United Kingdom and the United States, while Chinese is spoken all over East Asia.
American English has adopted extensive vocabulary from which of the following languages?
Native American languages.
Cultural ecology is
the study of human attitudes towards the cultural landscape.
the study of environmental culture traits.
the study of human-environment relationships.
the study of human interaction with animals.
none of the above.
Which of the following is a sacred place in the Hindu religion?
Tierra del Fuego
Which of the following is an example of a cultural landscape?
A coral reef
Terraced fields of crops up a mountainside
A stand of pine trees
Problems with the Chinese ideographic writing systems include...
each symbol must correspond with the pronunciation of the word it represents.
many symbols no longer have meaning.
in order to be literate, a person must memorize thousands of symbols.
each dialect has its own symbols for writing.
all of the above.
In the United States, the largest concentration of Mormons are found in...
Texas and Oklahoma
California and Oregon
Minnesota and Wisconsin
A Cultural transition zone is
an area where two cultures merge into a single culture.
an area where cultures are divided.
an area around the boundary between two culture regions that exhibits traits from both cultures.
an area of great cultural diversity.
an area where one cultural boundary abruptly ends and another begins.
An urban ethnic enclave that is held together by external forces of discrimination and marginalization, as well as by internal forces of community identity and ethnic solidarity, is known as a(n)...
Which of the following regions is considered a vernacular culture region?
The American South
Which of the following was NOT one of the earliest ancient cultural hearths?
Which statement concerning the globalization of Western culture is true?
Western culture is often spread through movies and other media.
Many foreign cultures have adopted Western traits like clothing and religion.
Some areas of the world have actively resisted Western culture traits
Backlash against Western culture has resulted in violence in some areas.
All of these are true.
Which of the following religions is predominant in the states of the southeastern United States?
The Indo-European language family has its distant origins in the area around the...
Which of the following is an example of hierarchical diffusion?
The spread of Spanish language to Latin America.
The spread of laptop computers from the upper class to the middle class.
The spread of AIDS from Africa to Europe.
The spread of Wal-Mart from Arkansas to the rest of the United States.
is dynamic and always changing.
is spoken mostly by the lower class.
has become synonymous with less education.
has relaxed grammar rules.
The principle religion of India is
This is the process by which a less dominant culture adopts the traits of a more dominant culture so completely that the two cultures become indistinguishable
The idea of origin of a culture is called
A cultural homeland
A culture realm
A cultural landscape
A cultural environment
A culture hearth
Dialects are local variants in language that differ in their
Speed at which the language is spoken