What are the characteristics of the cell membrane?
2 layers thick, proteins, selectively permeable, phospholipids, and have antibodies outside.
2 layers thick, proteins, selectively permeable, phospholipids, and have markers outside the cell.
1 layer thick, proteins, completely permeable, phospholipids, and have markers outside the cell.
1 layer thick, proteins, selectively permeable, phospholipids, and have antibodies outside.
What is the definition of passive transport?
Requires energy to move things in and out of the cell.
No energy is required to move things in and out of the cell.
Osmosis moves water from LOW concentration to HIGH concentration.
Diffusion moves everything but water from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.
What happens to the cell when the outside is hypotonic?
Water moves into the cell.
The concentration stays the same.
The cell gets bigger.
Water moves out of the cell.
The cell shrinks.
What happens to the cell when it is isotonic?
The cell gets bigger.
Water moves into the cell.
What happens to the cell when the outside is hypertonic?
Water moves out of the cell and shrinks.
Water moves into the cell and grows bigger.
What is a contractile vacuole?
In salt water organisms, gets rid of extra water that comes in by osmosis.
In all organisms, gets rid of extra waste.
In salt water organisms, gets rid of extra waste.
In freshwater organisms, gets rid of extra water that comes in by osmosis.
Facilitated diffusion helps bigger molecules get in the cell.
The cell membrane pumps allow the the cell membrane to bend.
What are the two kinds of endocytosis?
What is endocytosis?
Makes wastes and proteins leave the cell.
Bends to let stuff in.
Pinocytosis is when...
Liquids are brought into the cell.
Large particles or whole cells are brought into the cell.
Phagocytosis brings large molecules or whole cells into the cell.
Exocytosis does the exact same thing as endocytosis except it's with the nuclear membrane.
What is a much lower energy molecule than ATP?
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
What is ATP?
Medium energy molecule.
Low energy molecule.
High energy molecule.
What type of cells go through cell respiration?
Sugars are partially broken down in glycolysis.
Fermentation requires oxygen.
Aerobic respiration uses oxygen.
What is fermentation called in humans?
What is the result of fermentation?
Carbon dioxide and water.
Sugar and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen and sugar.
Water and oxygen.
Which cell organelle does the Kreb's cycle take place in?
Sugar is broken down in the Kreb's cycle to make 12 ATP.
Electrons are not released in the Kreb's cycle.
The equation for cell respiration is...
Sugar + Carbon Dioxide -> Oxygen + Water + ATP
Sugar + Water -> Carbon Dioxide + Oxygen + ATP
Sugar + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP
Water + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Sugar +ATP
Another name for fermentation is anaerobic respiration.
What is photosynthesis?
The process of making and storing sugars in plants.
Releasing nitrogen into the roots of plants.
Plants turn green.
What is involved in the light reaction?
Sugars are stored in the leucoplasts of a cell.
Light energy is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule in the chloroplasts.
Carbon dioxide is used with 3 ATP to make bigger molecules of sugar.
Electrons are absorbed by hydrogen in water and oxygen is produced as a waste.
Sugars are stored in the leucoplasts of a cell in the Calvin Cycle.
More light slows down the process of photosynthesis.
Less carbon dioxide means more photosynthesis.
What is the centromere on a chromosome?
1/2 the chromosome.
Coiled mess of DNA.
A constricted area holding the two halves of the chromosome together.
Chromatid is half the chromosome.
How many phases are in interphase?
A cell is in interphase most of it's life time.
In what phase of interphase does the cell grow to mature size?
In what phase of interphase is the DNA copied?
In G2, the cell gets ready for division.
Which cells have short lives?
Nerve and muscle cells live long lives.
What is the process the cell goes through after interphase?
What is the order of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.
Metaphase, prophase, cytokinesis, anaphase, telophase.
Cytokinesis, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, prophase.
What happens in prophase?
The division of the cytoplasm.
The DNA shortens and coils, centrioles appear at opposite ends of the cell, cytoskeleton gets ready to move chromosomes, and the nucleus disappears.
Chromosomes line up at the center.
In metaphase, the chromosomes line up at the center.
What happens in anaphase?
Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.
Chromosomes line up in the center.
Cytoplasm starts to divide.
What things happen in telophase?
Chromosomes move to the center.
Chromatids are pulled apart.
Nuclear membrane forms.
Chromosomes become chromatin.
Cytokinesis is not the division of the cytoplasm.
Sex cells don't go through interphase.
How many pairs of chromosomes do you start with in meiosis 1?
What does cross-over mean?
Chromosomes move to the centrioles.
Many genes from mom and dad exchange.
Tetrads line up in the center.
What are the products of meiosis?
4 new cells.
Spermatogenesis is the making of sperm.
The process of making an egg or ovum is?
What happens in fertilization?
Sperm goes to egg.
Plant starts to grow out of the ground.
2 haploid cells become 1 diploid cell.
All the cytoplasm comes from the egg.
What is differentiation?
The variety of cells in your body.
A cell splitting up into 80 trillion different kinds of cells.
The different kinds of blood cells.
What is cancer?
A genetic infection that comes from the womb.
A disease that is caused by too many chemicals.
Constant cell division.
Your own cells trying to eat you from the inside out.
What is the lytic cycle?
Attachment, Injection, Replication, Assembly, Release
Infection, Dying Cells, Macrophages Eating Cells
Attachment, Expansion of the Cell, Cell Explodes.
What are the different base pairs?
Adenine bonds with?
What does cytosine bond with?
What does guanine bond with?
The Human Genome Project is the DNA of 1 person.
What does SNPs stand for?
Soluble Nitrogen Prions.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.
Ribose is in DNA, not RNA.
What is Messenger RNA?
Folded piece of base pairs that brings in amino acids.
Short strands of RNA that takes info out of the nucleus.
Brings in the correct amino acids.