The Cytoplasm consist of specialized bodies called 1. _________ suspended in a fluid matrix, the 2. __________ which consist of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients
2. phospholipid bilayer
1. Golgi Bodies
2. Extracellular Fluid
The Fluid Mosaic Model describes the cell membrane as being what?
1. The mosaic nature of scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipid molecules.
2. The rigid nature of the phospholipid bilayer with a few membrane proteins to help with recognition and transportation of molecules
3. The mosaic nature of scattered proteins within a solid matrix made of cellulose
Three types of of proteins on the cell membrane are peripheral proteins, Chained proteins, and transmembrane proteins
Which type of transmembrane protein provides open passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophilic substances such as polar and charged molecules?
Use energy to transport materials across the membrane through a process called active transport. The Na+ - K+ pump
Allows the passage of ions across the membrane. In nerve and muscle cells. This also includes gated channels which open and close in response to specific chemical or electrical stimuli to allow the passage of specific ions such as Na+ and K+
allow passage of certain ions and small polar molecules
Allow only large charged molecules to transfer
Porins are found in the plasma membrane of certain cells and dramatically increase the passage rate of H2O molecules
Carrier proteins bind to specific molecules, which changes shape and passes across into the cell E.g. glucose
The difference between adhesion proteins and receptor proteins is that adhesion proteins attach to neighboring cells and provide internal filaments and tubules for stability, while receptor proteins are used as a binding site for hormones and other trigger molecules
The function of Glycoproteins are what?
Used to help the ER assemble ribosomes by attaching polysaccharide groups to polypeptides
To add rigidity to the cell membrane of animal cells under normal temperature
A carbohydrate coat that covers the outer surface of the cell wall of some bacteria and the cell membrane of some animals. Provides adhesive capabilities, and a barrier to infections.
used to distinguish between self and foreign cells and bacteria
What adds rigidity to the membrane of plant cells under normal conditions?
The rough ER is responsible for creating glycoproteins, while the smooth ER is used for creating lipids and hormones.
What is the gel like substance between organelles that makes up the streaming movement within the cell
What two subunits make up Ribosomes in prokaryotes and what are they made of?
rRNA and Protein
RNA and Protein
rRNA and Protein
50S + 30S
rRNA and Protein
60S + 40S
The Golgi apparatus is responsible for transport of various substances in vesicles
Peroxisomes: break down waste such as nutrients/bacteria/cell debris
What are microtubules made of?
What organizes microtubules in flagella and cillia
Which of these provides support for maintaining cell shape
Contractile vacuoles are only found in prokaryotes
Storage vacuoles are used to occupy most of the plant interior, exert turgor when fully filled to maintain rigidity. They also carry of the functions of lysosomes
Cell Walls are only found in plants and bacteria, and are made up of cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycans, and polysaccharides.
Which of the following is an Anchoring Junction?
Tight junctions do what?
Produces a seal that prevents the passage of materials between cells. characteristic of cells lining the digestive tract.
Contain narrow tunnels that allows the passage of ions and small molecules;
Are used to send chemical and electrical signals between cells
Provide mechanical stability and holds structures together
Check all of the following that Prokaryotes don't have
Receptor mediated endocytosis is a type of pinocytosis that uses ligands to bind to specific dissolved molecules and fold the into the plasma membrane in vesicles