Which of the following is the ultimate source of energy for a muscular contraction?
Which of the following substances can be metabolized anaerobically?
The predominant energy system used during a training session depends primarily on the
athlete's lean body mass
The production of lactic acid results from the activation of which of the following energy systems?
Which of the following energy systems has the highest rate of energy production?
Approximately how many ATP are produced via the oxidative energy system from the degradation of one glucose molecule?
Which of the following energy systems is predominantly active at the initiation of all exercise?
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycolysis?
To which of the following structures do the cross-bridges attach during muscle action?
Which of the following substances regulates muscle actions?
Which of the following substances acts at the neuromuscular junction to excite the muscle fibers of a motor unit?
Which of the following muscle fibers types is the MOST beneficial for a marathon runner?
When throwing a baseball, an athlete's arm is rapidly stretched just prior to throwing the ball. Which of the following structures detects and responds to the stretch by reflexively increasing muscle activity?
Golgi tendon orga
From which of the following is the heart's electrical impulse normally initiated?
Sympathetic nervous system
Which of the following occurs during the QRS complex of a typical ECG?
I. depolarization of the atrium
II. repolarization of the atrium
III. repolarization of the ventricle
IV. depolarization of the ventricle
I and III only
II and IV only
III and IV only
After a bout of resistance training, acute hormonal secretions provide all of the following information to the body EXCEPT
metabolic demands of exercise
type of physiological stress
Which of the following hormones does NOT enhance muscle tissue growth?
All of the following are functions of growth hormones EXCEPT?
decrease collagen synthesis
increase amino acid transport
Which of the following hormones has the greatest influence on neural changes?
Which of the following hormone levels is higher in women than men at rest
What type of resistance training workout promotes the highest growth hormone increases following the exercise session?
Rest: 30sec Volume: High Sets: 3
Rest: 30sec Volume: High Sets: 1
Rest: 30min Volume: High Sets: 3
Which of the following describes the knee joints?
Which of the following is the definition of power?
Force x velocity
Mass x acceleration
Force x distance
To compare performances of Olympic weightlifters of different body weights, the classic formula divides the load lifted by the athlete's
lean body weight
body weight to the two-thirds power
During a free weight exercise, muscle force varies with the following except?
Perpendicular distance from the weight to the body joint
A vertical jump involves knee, hip, and shoulder movement primarily in which of the following anatomical planes?
An athlete is performing a concentric isokinetic elbow flexion and extension exercise. Which of the following type of lever does NOT occurs at the elbow during this exercise?
Which of the following muscle fiber types has the GREATEST potential to, when trained in a specific way, CHANGE into a more aerobic or oxidative form?
A weightlifter adds 30 mins of intense (>75% VO2 max) stationary bicycle riding every other day to her resistance training program. Which of the following describes the GREATEST effect this addition will have on her performance?
Power gains will be compromised
Power gains will be enhanced
Power gains will remain the same
A 50-years-old female triathlete is concerned about osteoporosis. Which of the following exercises is the MOST beneficial for improving her bone mineral density?
Which of the following muscle fiber types are "bypassed" as a result of selective recruitment that allows an Olympic weightlifter to generate maximum power during a 1RM snatch?
Which of the following are the MOST effective stimulants of growth hormone production from a resistance training workout?
I. larger muscle mass exercise
II. small muscle mass exercise
III. high intensity and volume
II and III only
The INITIAL decrease in muscular strength caused by detraining is due to undesired changes in which of the following systems?
A 17-year-old high school cross-country runner has been training aerobically for six months in preparation for the upcoming season. Which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that time?
increased concentration of glycolytic enzymes
hypertrophy of Type I fiberes
transformation of Type I fiber to Type II fibers
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during each beat is the
All of the following normally increase during an aerobic exercise session EXCEPT
Diastolic blood pressure
The mean arterial pressure is defined as the
Average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle
Average of the systolic and diastolic blood pressures
Average of blood pressure and heart rate
Primary training adaptations of elite aerobically trained athletes include which of the following?
I. increased maximal oxygen uptake
II. decreased blood lactate concentration
III. increased running economy
I and III
II and I
I, II, and III
Which of the following is an early adaptation to acclimatizing to high altitude?
increased resting cardiac output
increased stroke volume
decreased tidal volume
When males and females are compared relative to muscle cross-sectional area, it appears that the potential for force production is
Stronger in males
Greater in females
Equal in males and females
Which of the following is the MOST significant adaptation to chronic resistance training for an older adult?
Increased muscle mass
Increased cardiovascular fitness
Improved blood lipid profile
An eight-year-old boy dramatically increased his upper body strength after following a six month resistance training program. Which of the following is MOST likely responsible for this gain?
Improved neuromuscular functioning
Enhanced cross-sectional area
Increased number of muscle fibers
Growth cartilage in children is located at all of the following locations EXCEPT the
All of the following are likely outcomes of preadolescent resistance training EXCEPT increased
The condition characterized by a bone mineral density more than 2.5 SD below the young adult mean is called
Which of the following should be evaluated FIRST when designing a training program for a 68-year-old competitive female tennis player?
Balance and agility
Deconditioned female college athletes who participate in sports such as basketball and soccer appear to be at increased risk of developing injuries to the
During the closing seconds of a basketball game, an athlete's team is down by one point and he has been awarded two free throw shots. The player is apprehensive about the outcome of the game. Which of the following best describes the athlete's situation?
He is experiencing state anxiey
He is in control of his arousal
His anxiety will improve his performance
An Olympic weightlifter attempting a personal record is able to ignore the audience to concentrate solely on her performance. Which of the following abilities is this athlete most likely using to perform exercise?
Prior to performing the long jump, an athlete reviews and concentrates on the technique required to jump as far as possible. Which of the following strategies is the athlete using to prepare for the jump?
Focus on task-relevant cues
Reliance on experience
Which of the following is MOST important to achieve the ideal performance state?
Fear of failure
Broad focus on the activity and the enviroment
An athlete's desire to perform to his or her potential is an example of
Motive to avoid failure
For a high school American football team, if any player squats two times his body weight, his name is placed on the wall. This is an example of
How does an athlete's optimal level of arousal change with limited skill and ability to perform the activity?
It is not related to the activity
All of the following are ingredients that qualify as dietary supplements in the US EXCEPT
All of the following describes caffeine's role in improving athletic performance EXCEPT
Decreased urine production
Increased fat oxidation
Increased power production
Which of the following are the MOST closely linked in logarithmic relationship?
I. Intake of anabolic steroids
II. Intake of androstenedione
III. Increase in endogenous androgen
I and II only
Which of the following substances has been shown by multiple research studies to improve strength performance?
Which of the following is the BEST reason for aerobic endurance athletes to avoid erythropoietin use?
It may cause an unregulated increase in RBC production
Resistance to infectious disease may be impaired
It may reduce the ability of blood to carry oxygen
Which of the following proteins has an amino acid profile MOST similar to the body's needs?
Which of the following BEST explains the requirements for increased protein intake by athletes?
Increased need for tissue repair
The quality of protein consumed
Restriction of calories to lose weight
Which of the following has the GREATEST influence on an athlete's dietary carbohydrate requirement?
Current average daily fat intake
Body size and body fat percentage
Type, duration, and frequency of exercise
Which of the following BEST describes dietary fat consumption?
Its restriction can be harmful to health and performance
It should never be higher than 40% of total calories
It should be less than 15% of total calories for healthy athletes
Which of the following is characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
Preoccupation with food
Very low dietary fat intake
When an eating disorder is suspected, the strength and conditioning professional should
Require frequent weigh ins
Provide nutritional information
Encourage further assessment by an eating disorder specialist