Which of the following does the cross-bridge attach to during the excitation-contraction coupling phase?
A 22-year old soccer player begins resistance training for the FIRST TIME. All major muscle groups are included. Which of the following BEST explains an increase in lower-extremity strength after 3 weeks?
Improved neuromuscular function
The energy system used during exercise depends on which of the following training variables?
I and IV only
II and IV only
III and IV only
When a motor unit is stimulated, all of its innervated muscle fibers fully contract due to
the size principle
the principle of selective recruitment
the all-or-none law
An elite aerobic endurance runner preparing for a 26.6-mi marathon will have a high concentration of which of the following types of muscle fibers?
Michelle runs 30-40 mi/week (10-12 Sun: 8 Mon; 6 Wed; 8 Fri) and wants to improve her 10-k time, currently at 74 min. Which of the following is the MOST appropriate modification to her program?
Increase her long run to 15 miles
150m track repeats
400-800m track repeats
Which of the following will occur as a result of shortening rest periods from 2 minutes to 1 minute in a 10RM circuit weight training program?
Increased lactic acid levels
Increased pH levels
Decreased creatine kinase levels
A football wide receiver performs 10 sprints of 40 yards to increase his 40 yard sprint speed. What is the primary energy system?
Which of the following enzymes catalyze the rate-limiting step of glycolysis?
Which of the following can be metabolized anaerobically?
Which of the following substances is MOST important in the regulation of muscle action?
The wide grip bench press movement primarily takes place in which of the following anatomical planes?
Most human limbs operate as which class of lever?
Which is these is NOT one of the 8 biomechanical factors related to strength?
Energy System Used
Muscle Cross Sectional Area
Joint Angular Velocity
Which of the following best describes the differences between the downward and upward phases of a 1RM squat?
Energy requirements are the same during the downward and upward phases
Less energy is required during the downward phase
More muscle activity occurs during the downward phase
Which type of exercise has the GREATEST positive influence on bone mineral density?
Open kinetic chain
During free-weight exercise, muscle force varies with which of the following:
I. Perpendicular distance from the weight to the body joint
II. Joint angle
III. Movement velocity
IV. Movement velocity squared
I and III only
I, II, and III only
II and III only
A sophomore collegiate 1600-m runner has been aerobically training for 2 years. She increases her performance time throughout the course of her first season. Which of the following physiological responses is PRIMARILY responsible for her performance increases?
Increase in running economy
Increase in maximal hear rate
Decrease in lactate threshold
Which of the following has the GREATEST influence on an athlete's dietary carbohydrate requirement?
Body size and body fat percentage
Type, duration, and frequency of exercise
Resting blood sugar levels
Which of the following adaptations is an outcome of heavy resistance training (>85% 1RM) that can IMPROVE the performance of a baseball pitcher?
Improved lactate clearance
Increase glycogen & triglyceride storage capacity
Increased cross-sectional are of Type II muscle fibers
Which of the following is a marker of aerobic overtraining?
Increased serum testosterone concentration
Decreased muscle glycogen stores
Increased testosterone-to-cortisol ratios
Which of the following cardiovascular responses is disproportionately high during a resistance training exercise as compared to an aerobic exercise?
A 33-year-old, 5'1" woman has been working with a personal trainer for 6 months. Her initial and most recent body composition tests revealed these results:
January 1: Bodyweight=130lbs Body fat=30%
January 30: Bodyweight=124lbs Body fat=25%
Approximately how much body fat (in lbs) has this client lost since her first body composition evaluation?
Which of the following is most important to replace after strenuous exercise in a warm climate?
An 18-year-old male baseball player has a RMR of 2,200 calories. He expends 700 calories per day through exercise and ingests the following:
Average daily protein intake: 125g
Average daily carb intake: 425g
Average daily fat intake: 40g
He would like to gain six pounds of muscle in 6 weeks. How many additional cals/day should he ingest daily to reach this goal?
A wrestler prepares for a competition and loses 11 lbs in 5 days. Most of the weight loss is
A 22-year-old female college swimmer has the following anthropometric data:
Height: 66in Weight: 70kg Body fat: 22%
What is her approximate lean body mass in lbs?
Which of the following BEST explains the requirement for increased protein intake by athletes?
Decreased protein oxidation during aerobic exercise
Increased need for tissue repair
How many calories does he eat each day?
Which of the following proteins has an amino acid profile MOST similar to the body's needs?