During the Excitation-Contraction Coupling Phase of a muscle, calcium ions are released so that they can bind to ______, a protein located at regular intervals along the actin filament.
An 18-year-old, 120lb female collegiate cross country skier has the following average energy intake: 500 grams of carbs, 25 grams of protein and 50 grams of fat. What nutritional guideline should be recommended?
Increase fat intake
Increase carb intake
Increase protein intake
When you move a muscle, neurons in your brain fire to recruit motor units. When a motor unit is activated by a neuron, every muscle fiber in that motor unit fully contracts because:
the principle of total recruitment
the all-or-none law
If I know I’m going to participate in some training, when should I consume some liquid and how much should I consume to ensure I am both hydrated and have adequate time to lose any excess?
2 hours – 1 pint
1 hour – 1 pint
30min – 1pint
You have an athlete who wants to add 16lbs to his frame over 8 weeks. How many extra calories should he consume over the course of a week? Assume all of the weight will be lean tissue.
Usain Bolt has decided to work towards breaking the 400m record, and is interval training 400m repeats. His 400m personal best is ~46 seconds, but for answering this question assume the exercise duration is 1 minute. What should his rest interval be?
During a baseball pitch, which of the following muscles is involved in the concentric action of shoulder internal rotation?
During a maximal inhalation and gas exchange, where is the highest partial pressure of oxygen?
What is the most important, followed by the second most important factor in determining what type of fuel your body burns during exercise?
exercise intensity, exercise duration
exercise mode, exercise duration
exercise duration, exercise intensity
Which of the following muscles does not contribute to the strongest muscle group used during the initial portion of the swing phase of running
Which of the following guidelines is not appropriate for providing fluid for athletes during activity?
When the athletes are thirsty?
Ensure the beverages are cold
Provide approximately six ounces every fifteen minutes
An athlete is performing maximum intensity exercise, which of the following energy pathways will contribute the most to ATP production?
Oxidization of fats and proteins
Oxidization of carbs
When estimating the recommended protein intake of any individual, which two factors must be considered?
Negative caloric balance and the biological value of the protein
Caloric intake and the biological value of the protein
Caloric intake and the intensity of the sport
An athlete is having some issues with body weight management and reaching his desired body composition. Which of the following factors could be contributing to these issues?
Infrequent meals and a large meal at the end of the day
Frequent meals throughout the day and a small meal at the end of the day
Frequent meals and maintaining hydration levels
During training, anaerobic athletes should consume how many grams of carbs per kg of body weight?
What is the difference between essential and non essential amino acids?
Non-essential amino acids are synthesized within the body, and essential amino acids are from foods.
Both essential and non essential amino acids are synthesized within the body
Non-essential amino acids are from foods, and essentials amino acids are synthesized within the body
Which of the following are organic substances that cannot be synthesized by the body but are needed to perform certain metabolic functions?
How many grams of protein per kg of body weight should strength athletes consume?
Which vitamin can help decrease delayed onset muscle soreness when consumed adequately?
An athlete is performing steady state exercise that has crossed the lactate threshold, what type of muscle fiber's use increases after this point?
The classification of foods by how high and for how long they raise blood glucose levels is accomplished through the use of what measurement?
Maximal oxygen uptake
Glycemic index or GI
The diagnostic criteria for what condition includes recurrent binge eating, engagement in either self induced vomiting, misuse of laxative, diurectics, or enemas, rigorous dieting or fasting or excessive exercise?
Poor eating habits
Under what conditions should a strength and conditioning professional be cautious about excessively high intakes of protein?
When athlete is experiencing impaired renal function
Both of these are correct
When the athlete's calcium intake is low
What is the recommended daily intake of carbs for an endurance athlete who takes in 2000 calories per day?
For an athlete looking to gain one to two pounds per week, how many calories per day must they consume above their current caloric intake.
350 to 700 kcal
500 to 1000 kcal
1000 to 2000 kcal
Which of the following is considered a high quality protein?
A female amenorrheic athlete is a vegetarian who dislikes supplements and dairy foods. Which of the following foods should she be consuming?
Dark leafy vegetables, broccoli and soybeans
Potatoes, rice and pasta
Lentils, pulses and carrots
An athlete is likely to collapse when as little as which percentage of the body's water is lost.
An athlete increase the risk of inadequate protein, iron, zinc and vitamin B when __________ is eliminated from the diet.
Milk and dairy
Which of the following is not included in the dietary goals of most athletes?
Obtaining optimal body compisition
Maintaining the lowest possible body mass index
Which of the following must occur in order to increase muscle mass and bodyweight?
More protein consumed
Positive caloric balance
Negative caloric balance
When as aerobic athlete is forced to begin to use protein as an energy source, how would their caloric balance be described?
What function does an increased protein consumption serve in endurance athletes?
Tissue repair and the use of branched-chain amino acids for auxiliary fuel
Tissue and positive nitrogen balance maintenance
The gluconeogenesis of body fat
When testing body composition, what is the desired percent body fat range for a 21 year old female skier?
Which of the following ergogenic aids does not result in increased protein synthesis?
Branched chain amino acids
Which of the following statements about MyPyramid is false?
MyPyramid shows both the recommended types and amounts of foods to be included in one's daily diet.
The food groups displayed in MyPyramid include grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat and oils.
MyPyramid does not include any of the food groups from the USDA's original Food Guide Pyramid
What is the goal of consuming fluid before beginning exercise?
To avoid dehydration during exercise
To replace lost fluid
To rehydrate before the next training session
When an endurance athlete injects erythropoietin, they will definitely achieve all of the following except which of the following benefits?
Increased red blood cell count
Increased oxygen consumption
Which of the following is the most common monosaccharide and the primary energy substrate for cells?
Dylan lost three pounds during his lacrosse game. How much water does he need to consume to replace the fluids that he lost?
A marathon runner requires a high amount of which of the following for optimal performance?
Liver fat stores
muscle ATP stores
Which of the following hormones interacts with the cell membrane to elicit a change within the cell?
Where is the muscle that flexes the elbow located?
The top of the arm
Which quadriceps muscle is located closest to the midline of the body?
Which of the following muscles assists the deltoids in pressing a barbell over the head?
The major muscle group used when performing leg extensions in compromised of how many specific muscles?
During the pull-up, many muscles of the back assist the latissimus dorsi (primary mover). Which of the following muscles does not?
A football athlete has been instructed to improve posterior chain strength to increase running speed and jump height. Their training program should include which of the following exercises?
How many joints are in the area where the deltoid muscles are located?
When curling a dumbbell, the most muscular torque occurs when the elbow is flexed to which angle?
The push up during running is immediately followed by which motion of the knee?
The Romanian Deadlift is assisted by which of the following muscles?
During intense exercise, forcing air out of the lungs is performed by which muscle?
During a normal ECG, which of the following electrical occurrences is masked by the QRS complex?
Repolarization of the ventricles
Repolarization of the atria
Depolarization of the atria
The muscle which is the primary plantar flexor and synergist of knee flexion has how many heads?
When assessing athletes, which of the following can group body categories?
Body Mass Index
By increasing the angle of the bench press exercise, the emphasis of the primary mover is changes to which area of the muscle?
During the concentric phase of a leg curl, which of the following muscles acts as a synergist?
The primary joint of a cable triceps extension is what type of synovial joint?
Ball and socker
What is the role of the transverse abdominus during maximum effort squats?
To increase intra-abdominal pressure
To decrease intra-abdominal pressure
To stabilize breathing during exercise
Which of the following describes trunk flexion?
The leg move away from the chest
The chest moves towards the legs
The back moves away from the chest
A rowing athlete is training to increase knee extension strength which exercise should be added to their program?
Which joint action is occuring when the angle between the radius and humerus increases?
During the dumbbell lateral raise exercise, what action are the arms performing?
A high jumper is attempting to maximize her knee extensor strength. Which of the following muscles should she target in her training?
During the knee extension movement in a squat, what pulls actin across itself?
The glenohumeral joint is known to perform movement in which anatomical plane(s)?
Both of these
The body is divided into right and left halves by which of the following?
Which of the following can perform movement in all 3 planes of motion?
A basketball player lands heavily after grabbing a rebound. Which of the following connective tissue of the knee is necessary to absorb the shock of landing?
Which of the following muscles is not involved with maintaining the stability of the should joint?
By changing the angle of the bench press to a negative angle, the emphasis of the primary mover is changed to which area of the muscle?
The iliotibial band inserts just below which of the following joints?
The muscle that is the antagonist to the biceps brachii during elbow flexion has how many heads?
All three heads of the deltoid insert into which of the following?
As a personal trainer, what advice would you offer your client if he requested a nutritional plan for weight loss?
Counsel the client and then prescribe a weight loss plan
Provide general recommendations, but refer the client to a registered dietitian if specific needs are requested.
Conduct a nutrition assessment with the client
What is the recommended carb intake for a strength and power athlete?
8-10 grams per kilogram of body weight
5-6 grams per kilogram of body weight
16-20 grams per kilogram of body weight
Which of the following food is considered a complete protein?
Why must athletes be conscious of their sodium levels?
To replace electrolytes, maintain a normal osmotic equilibrium and increase performance.
To replace serum blood plasma, maintain a normal osmotic equilibrium and increase performance
To replace phosphocreatine, improve muscle blood flow and increase performance.
A nutritionist suspects that an athlete's diet is lacking in fiber. What are the consequences of this type of inadequate diet?
Respiratory disease, high blood pressure, breast cancer and leukemia.
Heart disease, stroke, cancer of the stomach and constipation
Diverticulitis, heart disease, cancer of the colon, constipation, and diabetes
jane is a 25-years old endurance athlete. She consumes a strict vegetarian diet and does not take supplements. Which of the following supplements should Jane be taking for optimal running performance?
Iron and riboflavin
Iron and folic acid
Iron and cobalamin (B12)
Which of the following statements is false regarding the role of amino acids in the body?
It interrupts fluid and electrolyte balance
It aids in muscle hypertrophy
It maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
Which of the following are necessary for the formation of healthy cell membranes, the development and function of the brain and the nervous system and the production of hormones?
Saturated and polyunsaturated fats
Linoeic and linolenic acid
Protein, calcium and iron
During knee flexion of the leg curl exercise, which of the following structures within a sarcomere of the biceps femoris decreases in length and eventually disappears?
A dumbbell biceps curl and a barbell deadlift are examples of which two categories of the kinetic chain?
Anterior and Posterior
Open and Closed
Maximum and Minimum
Which of the following knee extensor muscles is responsible for the last few degree of the movement?
An exercise that involves which action will target the muscles on the back of the thighs?
During the back squat, what concentric muscle action do the quadriceps perform?
Which type of training uses structural stress to elicit adaptations to the muscular system?
When a muscle contraction occurs, which connective tissue within the muscle pulls directly on the tendon
An athlete is performing repeated sprints. In which of the following areas of the circulatory system will the concentration of carbon dioxide be the highest?
Inferior vena cava
The biceps femoris contracts concentrically to produce which of the following movements of the knee?
Before the electrical signal of the heart travels from the atria to the ventricles, it is delayed in what region?
When an athlete is jumping, in regards to the plantar flexion action of the ankle, which muscle plays the role of synergist?
Blood doping can be accomplished through infusion of an individual's own red blood cells or those from someone else's, or through administration of
Which chamber of the heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood throughout the body?
With the increase volume, the myocardial fibers becomes more than stretched than at rest, resulting in a more forceful contraction and an increase in force of systolic ejection and greater cardiac emptying. This principle is called.
Maximal Oxygen Uptake
This term refers to a period of life before the development of secondary sex characteristics.
Peak height velocity