Josephine has a test and she doesn't understand how DNA and RNA are different. How is DNA different from RNA?
RNA sugar is ribose instead of dexyribose
RNA is double stranded and DNA is single stranded
DNA has uracil, RNA does not
Josephine has to answer a question on her homework about why RNA is important, so she first needs to know what exactly RNA is. What is RNA?
a type of nucleic acid
helps build the nucleus
a type of phosphate
RNA is necessary to protein synthesis. However, a question on Josephine's homework asks what RNA stands for. What does RNA stand for?
rough nucleic acid
ribosomal nucleotide array
Transcription is a part of the process of RNA Protein Synthesis, also a concept that Josephine is struggling with and needs to know on her test. What is the correct description of transcription?
a process that carries amino acids
segments of DNA act as templates for production of complementary RNA molecules
segments of RNA act as templates for production of complementary DNA molecules
Josephine knows what RNA is and what it stands for, and that it has a vital role in Protein Synthesis, but she is still not sure about what the main function is of RNA. What is RNA's main function?
complete protein synthesis
Josephine has learned more about RNA, but there is another concept she needs to know on the test. What is genetic code?
a type of polypeptide
"language" of genetics
a special secret code created only for super genius scientists
Josephine knows about transcription and translation, but they sound the same, and also seem to have some of the same jobs. What is the difference between transcription and translation?
transcription decodes and translation is protein synthesis
transcription is protein synthesis and translation decodes
Josephine has a hard time remembering order in processes, and one of her homework questions asks about the order in which proteins are made. Which is true about the order of the process of how are proteins made?
DNA, Translation, Protein, Transcription, RNA
RNA, Transcription, Protein, Translation, DNA
DNA, Transcription, RNA, Translation, Protein
Josephine is worried about what happens when mistakes are made and DNA is altered. What happens when cell DNA is altered?
mistakes are made that affect the health of the new cell
a new type of cell is created
Josephine is very worried about the results of altered DNA. She worries about what could happen to her if the DNA is damaged What can happen when a cell's DNA is altered?
both A and B
Josephine has a hard time remembering vocabulary, and on her test she needs to know the difference between mRNA and tRNA What is mRNA?
neither answer is correct
a type of RNA that carries copies of instructions from DNA to the rest of the cell
a type of RNA that sends signals to the nucleus, similar to nerves
Josephine knows that rRNA and tRNA are different, but she doesn't remember how. What is one difference between rRNA and tRNA?
rRNA "reads" (hence the r) mRNA's message, while tRNA holds everything together
tRNA "reads" mRNA's message, while rRNA holds everything together
neither answer is correct
Josephine is not sure what RNA Polymerase is, as she has not heard that term before and it is on her homework. She already knows that "poly" means multiple, and what RNA is, but she is not sure what them put together exactly is. Define RNA Polymerase.
an enzyme that links the chain of RNA nucleotides
an enzyme that links the chain of DNA nucleotides
an enzyme that breaks down extra nucleotides
Josephine knows the difference of translation, but now she needs to know what happens during translation exactly. What is the order of the process of translation?
mRNA, tRNA, "assembly line", stop codon
tRNA, mRNA, "assembly line", stop codon
mRNA, "assembly line", stop codon
Josephine, previously thinking that a codon was something to do with computer coding, is now learning that a codon is something in genetics. What is the real definition of a codon?
A nucleotide base located in mRNA
Three nucleotide bases located in mRNA that decide which acid goes in which protein
Three nucleotide bases located in rRNA that decide which acid goes in which protein
Josephine had to look up what dogma means, but know that she knows what a dogma is, she must learn what the central dogma of Protein Synthesis is. What is the central dogma of Protein Synthesis?
Polymerase > transcription >RNA
DNA > RNA > Protein
RNA > DNA > Protein
Josephine feels worried about what the worst thing that could happen to her DNA is, and wanting to learn if there is a way to prevent it, needs to know what the worst thing is. Which is worse, deletion, subscription, or neither are bad?
Neither are bad
Josephine now knows what a codon is, but she is not sure what an anti-codon is, or what it does. First she needs to know what an anti-codon is. What is an anti-codon?
three paired bases
three unpaired bases
Josephine knows what both codons and anti-codons are now, but she wants to make a list of some of the differences. What is the difference between codons and anti-codons?
there is no difference
anti-codon is with mRNA, codons are with tRNA
codon is with mRNA, anti-codon is tRNA