According to Martin Luther King non-violent protest(ers) should....
... take the form of mass civil disobedience.
.... be more than a statement to the larger society.
.... interrupt society's functioning at some key point.
.... be clandestine.
.... be conducted by large masses.
.... avoid the risk of being jailed.
Give some examples for (successful) nonviolent protest.
1955: Montgomery Bus Boycott - 1956: segregation on local bus lines outlawed.
1960: Sit-ins against segregation at lunch counters (North Carolina) successful.
1960s: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized Afro-Americans to register for voting.
Since 1961: Freedom rides against segregation in interstate travel,
1960s: The Civil Rights Movement successfully campaigned for and supported the first Afro-American to be appointed as candidate by the Democratic Pary for the presidential elections in 1968.
Account for the changes the Voting Rights Law (1965) brought for blacks in the South.
The Voting Rights Law had no impact on the number of Afro-American voters.
The number of Afro-American voters rose from 20% in 1962 to 95% in 1968.
The number of Afro-American voters rose from 20% in 1962 to 60% in 1968.
Explain the meaning of the "Black Power" slogan.
The slogan expressed a mood among young Afro-Americans, in which self-esteem and enhanced racial pride replace apathy and submission to the "system".
The slogan expressed distrust in any progress given by whites and a rejection of paternalism.
The slogan expressed the wish to kill all white Americans.
Give an explanation for the urban riots in the black ghettos of the North in the years since 1965 (Report of the National Advisory Committee on Urban Disorders).
Malcolm X was assassinated while giving a speech in February 1965.
By the year 1965 50% of the blacks lived in Northern cities, whereas in the year 1910 only 10% of blacks had lived in the North.
The unemoployment rate was 12% among blacks compared to 4% among whites.
The poverty rate was 50% among blacks compared to 20% among whites.
According to the report, the "typical rioter" was a young, high school dropout, less educated than his non-rioting Negro neighbor.
According to the report, the "typical rioter" was usually underemployed or employed in an unskilled job. He was "proud of his race and, although informed about politics, highly distrustful of the political system."
Please account for some of the goals of the Black Panther Party.
The Panthers demanded freedom and power to determine the destiny of the black community.
The Panthers demanded full employment for Afro-Americans or a guaranteed income.
The Panthers demanded an end to the robbery of the black communities but made no claim for a restitution for slave labor of black people.
The Panthers demanded decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings.
The Panthers demanded education that teaches Afro-Americans their true history and their role in the present-day society.
The Panthers demanded exemption from military service for Afro-Americans.
The Panthers demanded an end to police brutality and murder of black people but were against organizing armed black self-defense groups.
The Panthers demanded freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails.
The Panthers demanded that blacks get the right to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States.
Explain how the Black Panther Party's political program related to the declaration of independence from the 1770s.
The Panthers repudiated everything that the American declaration of independence called for and stood for.
The Panthers referred to the declaration of independence calling for the "right [of oppressed people] to [...] throw off such government, and to provide new guards for the future security" when the government had a history of "a long train of abuses and usurpations [...] under absolute despotism."