Socials 9 June 2015 Exam

Question 1 of 60

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Define “philosophy”.

Select one of the following:

  • The definition of philosophy is “the study of truths and laws underlining all knowledge and reality”.

  • The definition of philosophy is "facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject".

  • The definition of philosophy is "the quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgment; the quality of being wise".

Question 2 of 60

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How was the Enlightenment brought about?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Philosophers wished to bring light to a society that they considered was full of darkness, ignorance, superstition, and prejudice.

  • The Enlightenment was influenced by the scientific method started during the Renaissance.

  • Philosophers thought that if the universe could be explained, then why not society as well? They thought that they could use reason to discover natural laws that determined human behaviour.

  • Louis XVI ordered people known as "philosophes" to spread ideas throughout France.

  • The new and unpopular queen, Austrian Marie Antoinette, fostered an atmosphere of freethinking with her sociable personality to gain popularity for herself.

Question 3 of 60

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How was the Enlightenment affected by the Scientific Revolution? Why is it called the “Age of Reason”?

Select one or more of the following:

  • The Enlightenment was influenced by the scientific method started during the Renaissance.

  • Enlightenment philosophers thought that if the universe could be explained, then why not society as well? They thought that they could use reason to discover natural laws that determined human behaviour.

  • The most famous Enlightenment thinker, Baron de Montesquieu, was born during the Scientific Revolution to parents who were very philosophical. The influence was not lost on the teenage Montesquieu, despite his logical and analytical personality. He combined his two great loves to start the Enlightenment.

Question 4 of 60

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List the ideas of the philosophe Baron de Montesquieu.

Select one of the following:

  • 1. Government should be made up of three branches:
    • Legislature (makes the laws)
    • Judiciary (interprets the laws)
    • King (enforces the laws)
    2. No one branch of the government should dominate another. Checks and balances are put in to make sure this does not happen.

  • 1. Countries should have a strong ruler.
    2. These rulers should be well-educated and have studied the methods of good government.
    3. A good ruler was one who protected the basic rights of the people.
    4. Voltaire believed in religious toleration and freedom of thought.
    5. He is credited with saying, “I may not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

  • 1. Human nature is basically good.
    2. Society and civilization change man from a noble savage (a pure being) into something bad. They corrupt man.
    3. It is impossible for man to live in a natural state, i.e. without civilization and society, but it is possible to make an ideal society.
    4. In an ideal society, people form a community and make a contract with each other and not with a ruler.
    5. People give up their individual freedom in favour of the decision of the majority. This decision of the majority is called general will.
    6. In this democratic society, everyone gets to vote on all decisions and everyone accepts the community decision (the general will).
    7. People are equal, therefore titles of rank and nobility should be abolished.
    8. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

Question 5 of 60

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List the ideas of the philosophe Voltaire.

Select one of the following:

  • 1. Countries should have a strong ruler.
    2. These rulers should be well-educated and have studied the methods of good government.
    3. A good ruler was one who protected the basic rights of the people.
    4. Voltaire believed in religious toleration and freedom of thought.
    5. He is credited with saying, “I may not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it."

  • 1. Human nature is basically good.
    2. Society and civilization change man from a noble savage (a pure being) into something bad. They corrupt man.
    3. It is impossible for man to live in a natural state, i.e. without civilization and society, but it is possible to make an ideal society.
    4. In an ideal society, people form a community and make a contract with each other and not with a ruler.
    5. People give up their individual freedom in favour of the decision of the majority. This decision of the majority is called general will.
    6. In this democratic society, everyone gets to vote on all decisions and everyone accepts the community decision (the general will).
    7. People are equal, therefore titles of rank and nobility should be abolished.
    8. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

  • 1. People are basically reasonable and will cooperate with each other.
    2. Government is an agreement between a ruler and his people, but rulers can stay in power only so long as the people give their consent.
    3. If a ruler is a bad ruler, he has broken the basis of the contract and the people have the right to rebel against him.
    4. People have basic rights - the right to life, liberty, and property.

Question 6 of 60

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List the ideas of the philosophe Jean Jacques Rousseau.

Select one of the following:

  • 1. Human nature is basically good.
    2. Society and civilization change man from a noble savage (a pure being) into something bad. They corrupt man.
    3. It is impossible for man to live in a natural state, i.e. without civilization and society, but it is possible to make an ideal society.
    4. In an ideal society, people form a community and make a contract with each other and not with a ruler.
    5. People give up their individual freedom in favour of the decision of the majority. This decision of the majority is called general will.
    6. In this democratic society, everyone gets to vote on all decisions and everyone accepts the community decision (the general will).
    7. People are equal, therefore titles of rank and nobility should be abolished.
    8. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

  • 1. People are basically reasonable and will cooperate with each other.
    2. Government is an agreement between a ruler and his people, but rulers can stay in power only so long as the people give their consent.
    3. If a ruler is a bad ruler, he has broken the basis of the contract and the people have the right to rebel against him.
    4. People have basic rights – the right to life, liberty, and property.

  • 1. If people are left alone, they will fight constantly.
    2. Strict rules are needed to keep people in line.
    3. To escape the confusion that would result if people were left alone without a ruler, people give up their freedom and enter into an agreement with the ruler. He/she makes sure that there is peace and order.
    4. Once people have entered into this agreement or contract, they cannot rebel, even if the ruler turns out to be a bad one.
    5. He thought that life was nasty, brutish, and short.

Question 7 of 60

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How did the Enlightenment thinkers influence the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Those two documents set out basic human rights that governments may not overlook.

  • They contain ideas taken from English philosopher John Locke, as well as the other Enlightenment philosophes – Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau.

  • The declarations guarantee freedom of thought, speech, religion, security, and property, and it put limits on the power of the government.

  • The Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen expresses that life is nasty, brutish, and short.

  • The Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen expresses that animals are fluffy and really cute.

Question 8 of 60

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How did the Enlightenment thinkers contradict the theory of absolute monarchy?

Select one or more of the following:

  • • John Locke
    a) Believed that rulers should not have unlimited power. He thought that government must be an agreement between a ruler and his people.
    b) Believed that there is no “God-given power”. Power comes from the people, of whom must give consent to a person to rule and to remain a ruler.
    c) Believed that people can rebel against a ruler if he has done wrong.
    d) **Believed that power does not come from God, but the people.

  • • Baron de Montesqieu
    a) **Believed that no one person or group should hold unlimited power.
    b) Believed that many people should collaborate to rule a country. Montesquieu thought there should be three branches that make up government:
    a) Legislature: makes the laws
    b) Judiciary: interprets the laws
    c) King: enforces the laws.
    c) Believed that no one group/person should be all-powerful; no one branch should dominate another.
    d) Believed that no one group/person should be all-powerful; checks and balances should be implemented to ensure that this does not occur.

  • • Jean Jacques Rousseau
    1. **Believed that no one person should hold all the power – people should give up their individual freedom in favour of the decision of the majority. This majority ruling is called “general will”. In this ideal society of democracy, everyone should be able to vote on all decisions and everyone accepts the community’s decision (a.k.a. the general will).
    2. Believed that no one person or no group(s) of people is/are higher than any others. He thought that people are equal, and therefore titles of rank and nobility should be abolished.

Question 9 of 60

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What were the political causes of the French Revolution?

Select one or more of the following:

  • ⇒ The influence of Enlightenment thought
    1. Locke said:
    ➢ People have basic rights
    ➢ Rulers can stay in power as long as the people give their consent
    ➢ People can revolt
    2. Rousseau said:
    ➢ People are equal
    ➢ All nobility should be abolished
    ➢ General will > people give up their freedom in favour of majority rule

  • ⇒ The American Revolution
    ➢ Democratic ideas spread from the New World to the Old World

  • ⇒ The demands of the Third Estate
    ➢ These people were angry with the unequal division of land and the burden placed on them, and the status quo voting system in the Estates General.

  • ⇒ The Haitian Revolution
    ➢ The Haitians could no longer restrain themselves from rising up against their oppressors and abolishing slavery.

Question 10 of 60

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Identify the complaints of the Third Estate.

Select one or more of the following:

  • ⇒ Peasants
    ➢ Owned only small plots of land.
    ➢ Owned farms that did not produce nearly as much produce as farms in countries like England and Holland.
    ➢ Endured a brutal existence.
    ➢ Were victims of epidemics and famine.
    ➢ Had no access to education.
    ➢ Were forced to spend part of their time working their lords’ property, as well as government projects.
    ➢ Were forbidden to kill or drive off animals harmful to crops, so that aristocrats could hunt them. Aristocrats would often trample the peasants’ crops in the process.

  • ⇒ City Workers
    ➢ Had to spend half their income on food.
    ➢ Had to deal with inflations on items, flour especially.

  • ⇒ Bourgeoisie
    ➢ Hated the lack of decent roads.
    ➢ Hated the excessive taxes and tolls.

  • ⇒ Bourgeoisie
    ➢ Hated the stench of their offices.
    ➢ Hated the poor clothing they were obligated to wear.

  • ⇒ City Workers
    ➢ Had to spend half their income on taxes.
    ➢ Had to share their housing with peasants whose farms had been burnt down by aristocrats.

Question 11 of 60

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Define “absolute monarchy”.

Select one of the following:

  • Rule by a sovereign with unlimited power, one that is above the law.

  • ➢ Powers as ruler come directly from God
    ➢ Ruler is God’s representative on Earth
    ➢ Since powers “come from God,” decisions cannot be questioned by others
    ➢ It is a “God-given right to rule”.

Question 12 of 60

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Define the "divine right of kings".

Select one of the following:

  • Rule by a sovereign with unlimited power, one that is above the law.

  • ➢ Powers as ruler come directly from God
    ➢ Ruler is God’s representative on Earth
    ➢ Since powers “come from God,” decisions cannot be questioned by others
    ➢ It is a “God-given right to rule”.

Question 13 of 60

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How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Many French officers and soldiers had taken part in the American Revolution (France had helped the American colonists fight against Britain).

  • The Americans were democratic in their views and had made a point of protecting the freedoms of the individual, which were outlined in the American Declaration of Independence.

  • To the philosophes and their followers, France was embarrassingly backward.

  • Compared to the republican government of America – or even the constitutional monarchy of England – seemed much more advanced.

  • The government needed to borrow money to equip armies for the wars of Louis XIV, XV, and XVI (1756-1763 Seven Years’ War – The French lost, so they had to pay an exorbitant amount of money).

  • The government had to also pay interest on the money that it had borrowed to pay for the lavish lifestyle of the court of Versailles. Louis XIV built Versailles about 20 kilometres outside of Paris. During the reign of Louis XVI, approximately 5000 people lived there.

Question 14 of 60

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A status of financial health in which expenditures exceed revenue is known as "deficit". It most commonly refers to government spending.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 15 of 60

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What were the weather conditions from 1788/89 and their effect on prices?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Hail, followed by drought, occurred during the summer and fall of 1788 caused poor harvests.

  • The winter of 1788-1789 was extremely cold and the River Seine froze over at Paris which stopped transportation and blocked the arrival of grain to the city.

  • There was global warming even in that day and age. The heat was so intense it burned the crops, thus killing them. This caused widespread starvation in France.

  • A tornado destroyed the largest farm in France.

Question 16 of 60

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Starting and ending years of the French Revolution?

Select one of the following:

  • 1789-1799

  • 1789-1794

  • 1790-1792

  • 1789-1801

  • 1788-1810

Question 17 of 60

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What is the significance of July 14, 1789 - Bastille Day?

Select one of the following:

  • Bastille Day commemorates the day that the French revolutionaries stormed the Bastille - a royal prison and fortress that symbolized the king's hold on the people. The radicals destroyed it.

  • Bastille Day commemorates the day that Bastille's album, Bad Blood, was released.

  • Bastille Day commemorates the day that Louis XVI was beheaded.

Question 18 of 60

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What was the Estates General?

Select one of the following:

  • The closest thing that France had to a national parliament.

  • A military committee.

  • A committee of people from the First and Second Estate.

Question 19 of 60

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What was the result of the Estates General's meeting?

Select one of the following:

  • The Tennis Court Oath and the National Assembly.

  • Support for Louis XVI's economic reforms.

  • Civil war.

Question 20 of 60

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People of which estate made up the National Assembly?

Select one of the following:

  • The First Estate.

  • The Second Estate.

  • The Third Estate.

Question 21 of 60

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What was the Great Fear?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Peasants were panicked that the king’s soldiers and aristocrats would crush the rebellion.

  • Peasants stormed the châteaux of the aristocrats, burned them to the ground, and murdered hundreds of people.

  • Peasants invaded offices and burned feudal certificates and papers that tied servant to master and indicated all of their obligations to their lords.

  • Peasants burned down Versailles.

  • Peasants stormed all of Paris' churches and murdered every single member of the Second Estate.

Question 22 of 60

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When was the French-Austrian war?

Select one of the following:

  • April 20, 1792.

  • May 13, 1702.

  • April 6, 1792.

  • July 14, 1789.

Question 23 of 60

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When exactly was Louis XVI beheaded?

Select one of the following:

  • January 21, 1793.

  • January 21, 1792.

  • January 21, 1791.

  • January 21, 1794.

  • January 21, 1795.

Question 24 of 60

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What crime was Louis XVI accused of committing?

Select one of the following:

  • Treason.

  • Heresy.

  • Sacrilege.

  • Theft.

  • Murder.

  • Spousal abuse.

  • Child abuse.

  • Drinking and driving.

Question 25 of 60

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The Reign of Terror occurred from . . .

Select one of the following:

  • 1793-1794.

  • 1792-1794.

  • 1792-1793.

  • 1789-1792.

Question 26 of 60

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Approximately how many people were guillotined during the Reign of Terror?

Select one of the following:

  • 37 000

  • 60 000

  • 43 000

  • 55 000

  • 57 000

Question 27 of 60

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Choose the more radical, or leftist, of the two groups.

Select one of the following:

  • Jacobins.

  • Girondists.

Question 28 of 60

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What is the literal meaning of the term "sans-culottes"?

Select one of the following:

  • "Without britches".

  • "Sandshark".

  • "Scarlet trousers".

  • "Without culottes".

  • "Sandy culottes".

Question 29 of 60

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What colour were liberty caps?

Select one of the following:

  • Red.

  • White.

  • Blue.

  • Black.

  • Navy blue.

Question 30 of 60

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Democracy means "rule by the people".

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 31 of 60

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The term "democracy" originated from the Turkish language.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 32 of 60

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Democracy originated from which time period?

Select one of the following:

  • The fifth or sixth century.

  • The fourth century.

  • The sixth or seventh century.

  • The sixteenth century.

  • The ninth century.

Question 33 of 60

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What is direct democracy?

Select one of the following:

  • Democracy in which decisions are taken by the entire body of citizens.

  • Democracy in which decisions are taken by the citizens' elected representatives.

Question 34 of 60

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What is indirect democracy?

Select one of the following:

  • Democracy in which decisions are taken by the entire body of citizens.

  • Democracy in which decisions are taken by the citizens' elected representatives.

Question 35 of 60

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Which did Abraham Lincoln say?

Select one of the following:

  • "[Democracy is] government of the people, by the people, for the people."

  • "I am the Dance Commander and I command you to dance!"

  • "I order you to have fun."

  • "Only the educated are free."

  • "He who allows oppression, shares the crime."

Question 36 of 60

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Who is the author of A Tale of Two Cities?

Select one of the following:

  • Charles Dickens.

  • William Shakespeare.

  • Leonardo DiCaprio.

  • Leonardo da Vinci.

  • William Wordsworth.

Question 37 of 60

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Which are from A Tale of Two Cities?

Select one or more of the following:

  • "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way . . . ."

  • "It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to than I have ever known."

  • "I see a beautiful city and a brilliant people rising from this abyss, and, in their struggles to be truly free, in their triumphs and defeats, through long years to come, I see the evil of this time and of the previous time of which this is the natural birth, gradually making expiation for itself and wearing out. . . .
    I see that child who lay upon her bosom and who bore my name, a man winning his way up in that path of life which once was mine. I see him winning it so well, that my name is made illustrious there by the light of his . . . ."

  • "In vain have I struggled. It will not do. My feelings will not be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you."

  • "The ones that love us never really leave us. You can always find them in your heart."

Question 38 of 60

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Out of the ten options below, choose the elements of industrialization.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Man is replaced by machine.

  • Mass production - more goods are produced in less time.

  • Cost of products decreases.

  • Quality control - all products are identical.

  • Division of labour - each person contributes a part (usually one) to the finished product.

  • Goods are made in a factory setting rather than people's own homes.

  • A resulting cosmopolitan country.

  • Cleaner city streets and higher air quality.

  • Better living conditions for the poor.

  • All world hunger is ended.

Question 39 of 60

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Define the term "Industrial Revolution".

Select one or more of the following:

  • A change in the methods used to make products.

  • A political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which rebel colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

  • The emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.

  • A slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti.

  • The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome.

Question 40 of 60

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Years of the Industrial Revolution?

Select one or more of the following:

  • 1750-1850 for the first part, and 1850-1914 for the second part.

  • 1733-1854 for the first part, and 1854-1914 for the second part.

  • 1891-1903 for the first part, and 1903-1914 for the second part.

  • 1638-1750 for the first part, and 1750-1914 for the second part.

  • 1789-1750 for the first part, and 1750-1914 for the second part.

Question 41 of 60

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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SEQUENCE OF EVENTS - WHAT IS THE STEP AFTER THIS ONE?
1. Before the Industrial Revolution society was primarily agricultural.

Select one of the following:

  • Changes in agriculture began occurring in the 1700s. (New techniques of farming such as crop rotation, seed drill and machines were used. The enclosure movement changed how land was divided)

  • New methods of farming meant more food was produced

  • More food meant a better diet which led to better health

  • People began living longer and having more children

  • More people led to an increase in the demand for goods. The textile industry was the first industry to be affected by the Industrial Revolution

Question 42 of 60

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Who was Jethro Tull?

Select one of the following:

  • An English inventor who tried to understand the way soil helped plants grow.

  • An English doctor who tried to understand the way soil helped plants grow.

  • An English teacher who tried to understand the way soil helped plants grow.

Question 43 of 60

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What did Jethro Tull invent?

Select one of the following:

  • The seed drill.

  • The Water Frame.

  • The Spinning Jenny.

  • The John Deere.

  • The plough shovel.

Question 44 of 60

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Before the seed drill - which quickly and efficiently planted seeds in neat rows - what method of sowing seeds was used?

Select one of the following:

  • Broadcasting.

  • Jetsetting.

  • Freethrowing.

  • Grazing.

  • Broadplanting.

Question 45 of 60

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What was Townshend's nickname?

Select one of the following:

  • "Turnip" Townshend.

  • "Ol' Wiseman" Townshend.

  • "Fodder" Townshend.

  • "Hippy" Townshend.

  • "Fallow" Townshend.

Question 46 of 60

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Which method produces more crop?

Select one of the following:

  • Grow four crops - turnips, barley, grasses, and wheat - in rotation.

  • Grow various types of crops in a year and keep one field fallow.

Question 47 of 60

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Which factors made British farms much more productive?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Enclosure

  • Improved animal breeds

  • Cultivation

  • Fertilization

  • Careful seeding

  • Crop rotation

  • Mass production

  • Division of labour

  • Industrialization

  • Self-interest

Question 48 of 60

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The growth of cities and towns was possible because improvements in agriculture increased the amount of food and made it possible for fewer farmers to feed large city populations.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 49 of 60

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Who invented the flying shuttle?

Select one of the following:

  • John Kay.

  • James Hargreaves.

Question 50 of 60

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Who invented the Spinning Jenny?

Select one of the following:

  • James Hargreaves.

  • John Kay.

Question 51 of 60

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Who invented the Water Frame?

Select one of the following:

  • Richard Arkwright.

  • Thomas Newcomen.

  • Samuel Compton.

  • James Watt.

  • Abraham Darby.

Question 52 of 60

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What does the United Kingdom comprise of?

Select one or more of the following:

  • England.

  • Scotland.

  • Wales.

  • Northern Ireland.

  • Great Britain.

  • London.

  • Manchester.

  • Liverpool.

  • Cambridge.

  • Oxford.

Question 53 of 60

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A sweatshop is a factory or workshop, especially in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 54 of 60

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In what year did the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire occur?

Select one of the following:

  • 1911.

  • 1910.

  • 1817.

  • 1962.

  • 1912.

Question 55 of 60

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What is true about the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire?

Select one or more of the following:

  • It shed light on the dangerous sweatshop conditions of factories.

  • It led to the development of a series of laws and regulations that better protected the safety of workers.

  • It killed 145 workers.

  • It is seen as one of the most infamous incidents in American industrial history.

  • It could have been prevented if there had been increased safety and less locked doors.

  • It occurred in the United Kingdom on March 25, 1911.

  • It killed 281 workers.

  • It killed 146 workers.

  • It killed 147 workers.

  • It killed 280 workers.

Question 56 of 60

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Who wrote the "Communist Manifesto" in 1848?

Select one of the following:

  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

  • Karl Marx and Madeleine l'Engle.

  • Karl Marx and Adolf Hitler.

  • Karl Marx and Fidel Castro.

  • The two Joes - Joe Biden and Joe Stalin.

Question 57 of 60

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Karl Marx's desires for a new, classless society in which all people are equal and all wealth and power are shared culminated in his authoring the "Communist Manifesto" with Friedrich Engels.

Select one of the following:

  • True
  • False

Question 58 of 60

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Define a revolution.

Select one or more of the following:

  • Revolution is a form of massive social change. A large percentage of the population becomes involved in the radical upset of the old order and reconstruction of a new one. Most people are wary of change and will resist it if they are fearful of the future outcome of such change.

  • A revolution is always social in nature. Social change may be massive, violent, and rapid as is often the case in political revolutions, or it may be quiet, peaceful, and gradual.

  • If the impact is great enough to radically alter the prevailing set of ideas (ideology) and world view (ethos) of a society, then that phenomenon is a revolution.

  • A rigid and complex class structure that affects nearly every aspect of daily life.

  • Members of parliament become so deeply disturbed.

Question 59 of 60

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What are the elements of a revolution?

Select one or more of the following:

  • Creation of a new system out of the upset of the old order.

  • A small number of people are committed to the ideas behind the revolution.

  • The weakness or the failure of the old order to deal with society's problems.

  • The masses (the common working people) are committed to the ideas of the revolution.

  • The majority of middle and upper-class people believe that the working class should work as much as possible.

Question 60 of 60

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What are some examples of non-political revolutions throughout history?

Select one or more of the following:

  • The Scientific Revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

  • The Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-eighteenth century and lasted for about a century.

  • The Protestant Reformation.

  • The French Revolution.

  • The American Revolution.

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Socials 9 June 2015 Exam

Clarissa Sastrawidjaya
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McGillivray's 2015 exam for Socials 9 in a nutshell.

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Clarissa Sastrawidjaya
Created by Clarissa Sastrawidjaya over 1 year ago
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