which of the following substances acts at the NMJ to excite the muscle fibers of the motor unit?
a college volleyball player begins resistance training for the first time. what muscle fiber types will hypertrophy first?
a 22 yr old soccer player begins resistance training for the first time. his chosen exercises include those for all major muscle groups. after 3 weeks, he notices an increase in lower extremity strength. which of the following best explains this athletes
improved motor control
increase cross section area
which of the following results from adding resistance training to a marathoners aerobic exercise training program?
short-term endurance may improve
max o2 uptake increases
max o2 uptake decreases
a bundle of muscle fibers is called
to which of the following structures do the cross-bridges attach during muscle action?
which of the following substances regulates muscle actions?
which of the following best describes what occurs during a concentric muscle action?
resistance is greater than muscle force
resistance is equal to muscle force
resistance is less than muscle force
which of the following will increase force produced during a concentric muscle action?
more calcium released in the myofibril
both of these
the knee joint can be described as
which of the following defines power?
force * velocity
mass * acceleration
force * distance
to compare performances of lifters of different body weights, the classical formula divides
body weight to the 2/3 power
the lift by body weight
body weight squared
a vertical jump involves knee, hip, and shoulder movement in primarily which plane?
a person is performing a concentric isokinetic elbow flexion and extension exercise. which of the following types of levers occur at the elbow during this exercise?
first class and third class
second class and third class
first class and second class
resistance exercise programs designed to stimulate new bone formation should emphasize all of the following EXCEPT
variation in exercise selection
a 17 year old HS cross country runner has been training aerobically for 6 months in preparation for the upcoming season. which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that time?
increased concentration of glycolytic enzymes
hypertrophy of type I fibers
increased type II fibers
which of the following is NOT a primary function of cartilage?
aids in the attachment of muscle to bone
connects bones together
improves shock absorption in joints
which of the following occurs as a result of a combination of heavy resistance training and aerobic training?
increased cartilage thickness
decreased cartilage thickness
in general, which of the following types of tissue has the poorest blood supply?
which of the following is the ultimate source of energy for contraction?
which of the following can be metabolized anaerobically?
the energy system used depends primarily on the athlete's
the production of lactic acid results from the activation of
the phosphagen system
which of the following pathways/systems has the highest rate of energy production?
in the oxidative system approximately how many ATPs are produced from the degradation of 1 glucose molecule?
which of the following pathways/systems supports the initiation of all exercise?
which of the following enzymes catalyzes the rate limiting step of glycolysis?
following a bout of resistance exercise training, acute hormonal secretions provide all the following information to the body EXCEPT the
amount of physiological stress
metabolic demands of exercise
type of physiological stress
which of the following hormones enhance muscle tissue growth
growth hormone provides all of the following physiological roles EXCEPT
decreased collagen synthesis
increased amino acid transport
which of the following hormones has the greatest influence on neural changes?
through which of the following valves does blood flow after contraction of the left ventricle?
which of the following occurs during the QRS complex of a typical ECG?
repolarization of the ventricle
repolarization of the atrium
depolarization of the atrium
in what portion of the lungs does gas exchange occur?
the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during each beat is the
all of the following normally increase during aerobic exercise EXCEPT:
diastolic blood pressure
end diastolic volume
which of the following best describes the change in stroke volume during heavy resistance exercise?
stays the same
increases, then plateuas
the mean arterial pressure is defines as:
average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle
average of systolic and diastolic blood pressures
average systolic blood pressure during exercise
high intensity, low repetition resistance training results in which of the following adaptations?
decreased capillary density
decreased tidal volume
no change in maximal o2 uptake
which of the following is an early adjustment to acclimatizing to high altitude?
increased resting cardiac output
decreased tidal volume
increased stroke volume
chronic training involving the fast
glycolysis energy system results in improved buffering of which of the following substances?
primary training adaptations of elite aerobically trained athletes include the following?
increased capillary density
increased running economy
decreased blood lactate concentration
when males and females are compared relative to muscle cross- sectional area, it appears that the potential for force production is:
greater in males
greater in females
equal in males and females
which of the following is the most significant adaptation to chronic resistance training in older adults?
increased muscle mass
increased cardiovascular fitness
improved blood lipid profile
an 8 yr old boy has observed dramatic increases in his upper-body strength following 6 months of resistance training. which of the following is most likely to be responsible for this gain?
increased size of muscle
increased number of muscle fibers
improved neuromuscular functioning
growth cartilage in children is located in all of the following locations EXCEPT:
the epiphyseal plate
all of the following are likely benifits of preadolescent resistance training EXCEPT increased:
resistance to injury
the condition characterized by a bone mineral density more than -2.5 SD below the young adult mean is called:
deconditioned college female athletes who participate in sports such as basketball and soccer appear to be at increased risk for developing injuries to the:
an olympic weightlifter attempting a personal record is able to ignore the audience to concentrate solely on her performance. which of the following abilities is this athlete most likely using to perform the lift?
prior to performing the long jump, an athlete reviews and concentrates on the technique required to jump as far as possible. which of the following strategies is the athlete using to prepare for the jump?
focusing on task relevant cues
which of the following is most important to achieving the ideal performance state?
broad focus on the activity and the environment
fear of failure
an athletes desire to perform to his/her potential is an example of:
for the high school football team, if any player squats two times his bodyweight, his name is placed on the wall. this is an example of:
how does an athlete's amount, or latitude, of optimal arousal change with limited skill and ability of the activity?
it has no effect