Norepinephrine ______ insulin release, whereas epinephrine ________ insulin release.
One of the major causes of death in shock is myocardial deterioration. MDF (myocardial depressant factor) causes significant reduction in cardiac output in response to...
ischemia of the GI tract
reduction in blood volume
From the following, select the correct clinical manifestations of shock (think compensatory mechanisms).
Decrease in urine output
Hypovolemic shock begins to develop when the intravascular volume has decreased by approximately ___
Which type of shock is most common in children?
If a patient has tension pneumothorax, which kind of shock are they most likely to develop?
What is the number one cause of cardiogenic shock?
A clinical manifestation of neurogenic shock is ________, whereas patients with cardiogenic and obstructive shock may present _________.
warm and flushed skin; cyanotic and mottled skin
cyanotic and mottled skin; warm and flushed skin
Not everyone who experiences anaphylaxis will have anaphylactic shock.
Which form of shock is the number one cause of death in ICU settings?
Hypotension is the hallmark clinical finding of which stage of shock?
Which of the following are you most likely going to see in a person experiencing shock?
A decrease of systolic BP by more than __ mmHg with an increased heartrate by more than __ BPM indicates actual or relative hypovolemia requiring immediate assessment of need for fluid replacement and CV support.
A person with neurogenic shock initially exhibits...
increased central venous pressure
How does any type of shock cause oliguria?
By stimulating the renin-angiotensin system
By decreasing the perfusion to the kidneys
By stimulating carotid and baroreceptors
By decreasing the PNS stimulation
What type of shock develops with overstimulation of the PNS or understimulation of the SNS?
_________ shock is often more severe than other forms because of its sudden, rapid systemic vasodilation.
What type of shock results from decreased systemic vascular resistance?
What are the primary goals for treatment of shock?
Maximizing oxygen delivery and minimizing oxygen demand
Maintaining hydration and adequate urinary output
Supporting all facets to the cardiovascular system
Maintaining all vital signs within normal ranges
To determine a client's response to fluid therapy for shock, the nurse should monitor...
hematocrit and hemoglobin levels
urine output and specific gravity
blood pressure and pulse
arterial blood gasses and heart rate
Which clinical manifestation of septic shock confirms an elevation in immune system response?
Increased white blood cell count
Low respiratory rate
The release of catecholamines by the adrenal glands compensates for which initial effects of hypovolemic shock?
Interstitial fluid moves out of the vascular compartment
Systemic vascular resistance is decreased
Heart rate is increased
Water excretion is increased
Which condition is best defined as a clinical syndrome involving a systemic response to infection, which is manifested by two or more of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria?