Describe the origins and the outcome of the English Civil War!
Civil War - > English Revolution
fought between crown and parliament;
during the reign of the Tudors, modern English parliament emerged;
Parliament was needed by the monarchs to make some of their decisions legitimate;
Civil War similar to French revolution and 30-years-war in Germany;
monarchs in England were so powerful that parliament wasn't called for years -> only needed for money/ taxes;
monarch not member of Chamber;
Upper Chamber and Lower Chamber
Upper Chamber: aristocrats, members of church (clerks)
Lower Chamber: "elected" (land-owners, only 3% of population could be elected), wealthy people
1628: House of Commons demanded rights; Charles I accepted its demands but then dissolved parliament and ruled without it for 11 years
Short Parliament of 1640: needed money, recalled parliament and dissolved it after 3 weeks
recall of parliament later that year: parliament passed a bill that it can only be dissolved when members agree
-> long parliament 1640-1660
John Pym: leader of parliament, most opposed to king
parliament was very critical against Charles I.
-> parliament assumed ultimat authority
Struggle between king and parliament:
conflict of wills,
by 1641: new view emerged that king was irresponsible,
rebellion in Ireland 1641: rebels claimed to act on Charles authority: Charles was thought to support catholic Irish -> people thought he would restore catholic religion
Puritans & Levellers:
Puritans: system was bitterly opposed by the great majority of ordinary people;
Levellers: radical Puritans, wanted to abolish existing governments; suffrage- the right to vote - should be for all men
1642: relations between king & parliament hopeless;
Charles feared parliament and fled from London, some aristocrates followed him and formed the Oxford-Parliament;
Both: raised armies independently, 'Battle of Edgehill' in October 1642 started the English Civil War;
Parliamentarians (or Roundheads after their hairstyle) vs. Royalists or Cavaliers
supporters of king had religious demands: wanted angl. church to stay (power)
largest single battle: Marston Moor near York in June 1644
Parliament's heartland: area in the immediate vicinity of London -> greater long-term advantages!
wealth and men-power of London -> so powerful that parliament won the battle!
whoever controlled London, controlled everything!
New Model Army:
Engl. 1st professional fighting-force
achieved impressive string of victories
C.W. was over with defeat of the Scots at Preston (1648; Scots had entered into an alliance with Charles)
1647: only 2 alternatives -> Parliament would capitulate OR parliament would remove the king;
(most) of parliament wanted to restore the king, leaders oft army & minority of people wanted removal of king -> RUMP PARLIAMENT (radical)
- 46 men: 26 out of those wanted to put king on trial
January 1649: Beheading of Charles at Whitehall
The Commonwealth 1649-1660:
around the execution of Charles I, the Rump parliament created the legal basis for a republic;
on February 6th 1649: monarchy was formally abolished;
from 1649 - 1660: England was republic/ Protectorate
republic: state governed by its citizens;
Scottland fully intigrated into Britain, Ireland defeated
most powerful ruler since the fall of Rome!
ruled as Lord Protector (his invention) and Head of State from 1653 - 1658;
leader of Puritans, member of Parliament;
brought England, Ireland and Scottland to Union;
forced parliament to bend to his will;
parliament offered him throne -> he declined
Power: bigger than any other monarch;
all power held by military (dictatorship of military)
Consequences of the Civil War:
(later) desintegration of Puritanism
weakening of church of England
trauma of regicide (Königsmörder)
Which factors led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660?
after Cromwells death (1658): his son Richard became his successor as Lord Protector of England;
very weak, not convincing enough, lost support of army;
why did parliament support restoration?
people believed that country needs a ruler (traditional)
kings power known, powers of Lord Protector unknown 6 undefined
-no colorful clothes ....
Oliver Cromwell was hated, when he died
Puritanism was not very popular
Charles II (son of Charles I) elected: took throne after lifing his whole life in France (in exile)
-Puritan popularity strongly declined
-religious pluralism in England was accepted, religion had a more unthreatening manner (more like a hobby)
-Christianity: depoliticised and demystified
What was the Glorious Revolution?
Charles II unconditionally restored, his reign was declared to have begun with his fathers death
one of Charles II first orders:
-> profound divide between churchmen and dissenters (Puritans)
only challenge to the king's authority: Exclusion Crisis 1687-81 -> no catholic ruler on throne allowed
Charles II had no legal (!) children
possibility of new catholic dynasty occured with James II
Catholic brother of Charles II became king - again a catholic on the throne
-> people accepted this reluctantly because James only child Mary was protestant
-> James II intented a programme of re-Catholicisation
politicians split into two main groups for the first time:
Whigs - exclude James II
Tories - king is right -> every king who follows is also right
plan to invite William of Orange to England
-> William saw a chance to use the British naval & forces to defeat Louis XIV
- able to get himself proclaimed joint ruler with Mary within a matter of weeks
-> bloodless conquest!
James II lost support in parliament & army & fled to France
Crown offered to William and Mary jointly: joint monarchy -> both rule as king and queen!
'Bill of Rights' was passed: most important document in engl. history -> right of free elections, right to regular Parliament, right of Parliament to control taxation, succession of throne confined to Protestants
expression 'Glorious Revolution' first used in 1689, it is also called the bloodless Revolution
Revolution as the last successful invasion of England, beginning of modern English parliamentary democracy