Applied Linguistics 2009

Question 1 of 50

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1. Inductive learning consist in

Select one of the following:

  • A. moving from a generalization or a universal rule to specific instances

  • B. storing a number of examples and drawing a rule that governs the specific information

  • C. comparing a number of examples to the existing, general rule or pattern

  • D. memorizing a number of examples as a set of unrelated facts for further analysis

Question 2 of 50

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2. The stage which characterizes the course of intellectual development of a child of seven to eleven is described by Piaget (1972) as:

Select one of the following:

  • A. sensimotor

  • B. preoperational

  • C. concrete operational

  • D. formal operational

Question 3 of 50

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3. Human cognition is described by Piaget (1972) as a process of moving from a state of doubt to state of certainty and then back to further doubt, and so on. This process is called:

Select one of the following:

  • A. approximation

  • B. assimilation

  • C. equilibration

  • D. restructuring

Question 4 of 50

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4. In the field of SLA Ochsner (1979) distinguished the two major research paradigms-nomothetic and hermeneutic. They basically reflect the two research traditions of:

Select one of the following:

  • A. behaviourism and cognitivism

  • B. mentalism and constructivism

  • C. creationism and evolutionism

  • D. empiricism and rationalism

Question 5 of 50

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5. Which theory is based on the assumption 'that all human beings create their own vision of reality so that different, contrasting ways of describing the word are equally legitimate?

Select one of the following:

  • A. Constructivism

  • B. Idealism

  • C. Cognitivism

  • D. Mentalism

Question 6 of 50

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6. Notions such as competence and deep structure are associated with:

Select one of the following:

  • A. Behaviourism

  • B. Rationalism

  • C. Cognitiivism

  • D. Structuralism

Question 7 of 50

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7. Notions such as interactive discourse and cooperative learning are associated with

Select one of the following:

  • A. Constructivism

  • B. Functionalism

  • C. Constructionism

  • D. Rationalism

Question 8 of 50

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8. According to the Behaviourist learning theory, the way in which previous learning prevents the learning of new habits is referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. fossilization

  • B. negative feedback

  • C. backsliding

  • D. proactive inhibition

Question 9 of 50

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9. Nativist theories of second language acquisition are based on the assumption that

Select one of the following:

  • A. It is a natural, universal process that is similar to learning any other skill.

  • B. It is innately determined due to genetic capacity available to all human beings.

  • C. It consists in discovering meaningful language functions within a social context

  • D. it consists in developing habits in the process of responding to incoming stimuli

Question 10 of 50

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10. Klein (1986) claims: One of the learner's tasks is to make utterances fit the context. This is

Select one of the following:

  • A. analysis

  • B. matching

  • C. embedding

  • D. synthesis

Question 11 of 50

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11. Vygotsky's (1987) notion of ZPD (zone of proximal development) is the distance between

Select one of the following:

  • A. a child's conscious and subconscious information processing abilities.

  • B. preoperational and formal operational stages of a child's development

  • C. a child's actual cognitive capacity and the level of potential development

  • D. the linguistic and intellectual level of a child's development

Question 12 of 50

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12. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning refers to the process of learning in which a learner

Select one of the following:

  • A. emits a response, often without observable stimuli, that is maintained by reinforcement

  • B elicits the underlying meaning of deep structures by a series of formal operations

  • C. elicits the meaning of a linguistic stimulus by interpreting a self-stimulating response

  • D. acquires a linear pattern of sentence elements which is a basis for hypotheses formation

Question 13 of 50

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13. McLaughlin's (1987) Attention Processing Model refers to two processing mechanisms:

Select one of the following:

  • A. analytic-holistic

  • B. focal-peripherial

  • C. controlled-automatic

  • D. intentional-unintentional

Question 14 of 50

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Ellis's (1985) Variability Competence Model emphasizes the role of

Select one of the following:

  • A. 'acquired' and 'learned' knowledge

  • B. interactions in developing L2 competence

  • C. comprehension imput

  • D. linguistic and situational context

Question 15 of 50

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15. The diffusion model of SLA (Gatbonton 1978) accounts for the way in which leaners

Select one of the following:

  • A. organize the language they hear according to the rules they construct

  • B. produce correct language forms on some occasions but incorrect on the other occasions

  • C. develop and change their internal rules, sorting out how to use forms correctly

  • D. fail to reach L2 competence, or 'backslide' to some earlier forms of interlanguage

Question 16 of 50

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16. Categorical rules, for example [X--> Y/_A], where X is realized as Y in context A, were used by Labov (1972) to describe a speech behaviour of native speakers of English known as

Select one of the following:

  • A. casual speech

  • B. speech planning

  • C. formal speech

  • D. style shifting

Question 17 of 50

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17. The main source of data in the study of SLA are: (1) the learner's language use, (2) metalingual judgements, and (3) discourse analysis. Which of the statements is true?

Select one of the following:

  • A. (1) and (2)

  • B. (2) and (3)

  • C. (1) and (3)

  • D. (1), (2) and (3)

Question 18 of 50

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18. Studies on the pro-drop and subjacency parameters (e.g. Chomsky 1981) focus mainly on

Select one of the following:

  • A. the availability of UG in L2 acquisition

  • B. the role of typological universals

  • C. the order of acquisition of L2 forms

  • D. the role of the linguistic context in SLA

Question 19 of 50

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19. In the model of speech planning proposed by Crooks (1989) the main factor(s) influencing the learner's production is/are

Select one of the following:

  • A. demands of short term memory

  • B. the role of typological universals

  • C. the speaker's attitude to the addressee

  • D. pre- and post- articulation monitoring

Question 20 of 50

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20. The Competition Model (MacWhiney 1989) takes its names from the 'competition' that arises from the different

Select one of the following:

  • A. devices that signal a function of sentence constituents

  • B. interpretations of the deep and surface structure of the sentence

  • C. levels of markedness of specific linguistic features

  • D. types of linguistic universals that govern the order of SLA

Question 21 of 50

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21. The Parallel Distributed Processing Model (Rumelhart and McClefland 1986) differs from other models of language acquisition because it rejects the concept of

Select one of the following:

  • A. input and output

  • B. declarative and procedural knowledge

  • C. short and long-termed memory

  • D. information storage and processing

Question 22 of 50

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22. Phonetic coding ability and grammatical sensitivity are two components of the learner's

Select one of the following:

  • A. cognitive style

  • B. foreign language aptitude

  • C. language processing ability

  • D. verbal intelligence

Question 23 of 50

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23. In her model of SLA, Białystok (1987) distinguishes two types of a learner's response:

Select one of the following:

  • A. analyzed and unanalyzed

  • B. monitored and unmonitored

  • C. controlled and automatic

  • D. spontaneous and time-delayed

Question 24 of 50

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24. Borrowings from other languages (e.g. Sauerkraut, police, sauna) are referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. marked forms

  • B. substantial universals

  • C. unmarked forms

  • D. peripheral universals

Question 25 of 50

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25. Schmidt (1990) distinguishes three senses of 'consciousness' in SLA. They are

Select one of the following:

  • A. awareness, perception and noticing

  • B. intention, perception and knowledge

  • C. intention, perception and awareness

  • D. awareness, intention and knowledge

Question 26 of 50

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26. Native language attrition occurs most often in the case of

Select one of the following:

  • A. additive bilinguals

  • B. coordinate bilinguals

  • C. compound bilinguals

  • D. subtractive bilinguals

Question 27 of 50

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27. Tolerance of ambiguity is a dimension of

Select one of the following:

  • A. field dependence/ independence

  • B. cognitive style

  • C. rote learning ability

  • D. FL language aptitude

Question 28 of 50

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28. Interlanguage can be described as permeable, which means that it is

Select one of the following:

  • A. sequential

  • B. fossilized

  • C. stable

  • D. open to change

Question 29 of 50

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29. Errors that are found in first and second language acquisition data are referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. induced errors

  • B. developmental errors

  • C. interference-like errors

  • D. transfer errors

Question 30 of 50

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30. Expressions which are learnt as fixed, unanalyzable chunks of discourse are referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. developmental patterns

  • B. transitional constructions

  • C. formulaic speech

  • D. linguistic idiosyncracies

Question 31 of 50

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31. One item in L1 becomes two items in L2 (L1: robić - L2: do, make). This process is called

Select one of the following:

  • A. amalgamation

  • B. coalescence

  • C. split

  • D. expansion

Question 32 of 50

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32. Two items in L1 become one in L2 (L1: wiedzieć, znać - L2: know). This is an example of

Select one of the following:

  • A. convergent phenomena

  • B. congruent structures

  • C. semantic reduction

  • D. parallel distribution

Question 33 of 50

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33. The act of inserting words or phrases of one language into the other is referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. borrowing

  • B. foreignizing

  • C. code-switching

  • D. imbedding

Question 34 of 50

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34. The strategy of using an L1/L3 form adapted in such a way so as to make it appear like an L2 form (e.g. 'They are sitzing') is referred to as

Select one of the following:

  • A. code-switching

  • B. restructuring

  • C. word coinage

  • D. foreignizing

Question 35 of 50

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35. Language used by native speakers when communicating with L2 learners is called

Select one of the following:

  • A. baseline speech

  • B. foreigner talk

  • C. caretaker speech

  • D. modified input

Question 36 of 50

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36. Language used by native speakers in communication with other native speakers is called

Select one of the following:

  • A. baseline speech

  • B. casual speech

  • C. peer talk

  • D. unmodified input

Question 37 of 50

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37. Gardner and Lanbert (1972) claim that the most powerful predictor of success in SLA is

Select one of the following:

  • A. intelligence

  • B. language aptitude

  • C. motivation

  • D. personality

Question 38 of 50

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38. Utterances that are superficially well-formed but do not mean what the learner wanted to express are ('I cut myself' instead of 'I had a haircut') described as

Select one of the following:

  • A. global errors

  • B. covert errors

  • C. overt errors

  • D. errors of misinformation

Question 39 of 50

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39. Learner's utterances constructed by borrowing chunks from the preceding discourse and with the use of the learner's own resources (A: Come here!- B: No come here) are called

Select one of the following:

  • A. transitional constructions

  • B. interlanguage patterns

  • C. vertical structures

  • D. language processing

Question 40 of 50

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40. Cummis (1979) introduced the two concepts of cognitive academic language proficiency and basic interpersonal

Select one of the following:

  • A. learning style

  • B. cognitive style

  • C. language ability

  • D. language processing

Question 41 of 50

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41. A procedure for establishing order of SLA, based on the assumption that the presence of one linguistic form in learner language occurs only if other forms are also present is called

Select one of the following:

  • A. discourse analysis

  • B. implicational scaling

  • C. obligatory occasion analysis

  • D. form-function evaluation

Question 42 of 50

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42. A learner who has two meaning systems developed in the process of learning two first languages in distinguished separate contexts is referred to as a(n)

Select one of the following:

  • A. additive bilingual

  • B. coordinate bilingual

  • C. compound bilingual

  • D. subtractive bilingual

Question 43 of 50

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43. The learner's competence to make repairs and to sustain communication through paraphrase or repetition is labeled by Canale and Swain (1980) as

Select one of the following:

  • A. communicative

  • B. sociolinguistic

  • C. discourse

  • D. strategic

Question 44 of 50

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44. According to Bachman (1990) illocutionary and sociolinguistic competence are parts of

Select one of the following:

  • A. grammatical competence

  • B. organizational competence

  • C. pragmatic competence

  • D. textual competence

Question 45 of 50

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45. Teacher: 'Would you like to read?' Student: 'No, I would nor." In this example the hearer misinterpret the speaker's utterance, because he failed to understand its

Select one of the following:

  • A. illocutionary force

  • B. pragmalinguistic code

  • C. pragmatic constrain

  • D. sociopragmatic rule

Question 46 of 50

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46. The ability to understand others, how they feel and interact with one another is the type of intelligence defined by Garther (1983) as

Select one of the following:

  • A. emotional

  • B. intrapersonal

  • C. interpersonal

  • D. social

Question 47 of 50

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47. Cultural congruence is the state in which the culture of the L2 group is

Select one of the following:

  • A. similar to that of the TL group

  • B. superior to that of the TL group

  • C. different from that of the TL group

  • D. inferior to the of the TL group

Question 48 of 50

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48. Consciousness-raising is a type of instruction designed to make a learner aware of

Select one of the following:

  • A. specific linguistic features

  • B. the use of communication strategies

  • C. the nature of language communication

  • D. the nature of language learning

Question 49 of 50

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49. Canadian teaching programme designed to educate native speakers of English through the mediom of French were the first example of the L2 learning context described as

Select one of the following:

  • A. bilingual learning

  • B. immersion

  • C. naturalistic acquisition

  • D. submersion

Question 50 of 50

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50. The primary aim of formal instruction focused on metacognitive goals is to

Select one of the following:

  • A. teach grammar and lexis of the L2

  • B. teach the L2 strategies

  • C. teach discourse and pragmatics of the L2

  • D. match the learner with a type of instruction

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Applied Linguistics 2009

Ros Agnieszka
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Ros Agnieszka
Created by Ros Agnieszka over 1 year ago
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