3 Types of Norms
folkways, mores, laws
Simple everyday norms based on custom, tradition, or etiquette
norms based on broad societal morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemmation
strongest norms supported by codified social sanctions
What is the relationship between crime and deviance?
They overlap while they have independent dimensions.
How are people labeled deviant?
Through the ABC's of deviance.
What does ABC's of deviance stand for
C- for conditions; which you acquire from birth
Three S's of Stigma Attribution
Sin, Sick, Selected
What are the four types of deviances?
Negative Deviance, Rate Busting, Deviance Admiration, Positive Deviance
Underconformity or nonconformity that is negatively evaluated.
Negative reaction not to underconformity but to overconformity and constitutes the "geek phenomenon"
Underconformity that is postively evaluated people do not view the actions as right rather they accept the violations of the norms.
Example: Thomas Jefferson, George Washington
Denotes overconformity to the norms that is positively evaluated.
Example: Mother Teresa
Defines deviance as the infraction of some agreed-upon rule. It is constructed by society's behavior to different actions.
Race and the Labeling Theory
-Boys from middle-class areas do not get far in the legal process when they are arrested.
-It is extremely unlikely for white to be convicted and sentence.
- Negros are highly likely to be punished from crimes against white than against other Negros.
Consequences of labeling theory
Being branded as deviant or criminal can have further consequences on social participation, self-image, and public identity.
Master Trait vs. Auxiliary Trait
Master trait: goes through certification, schooling, and/or licensing to master a speciality.
Auxiliary trait: what people expect from a person.
What does it take to be labeled a criminal?
A single criminal offense.
Consider deviance as a simple task, implies that a widespread consensus exists about what is deviant and what is not.
Wants society to adapt to the changes of our times.
common world view that binds people to their families, to their communities, and to the larger economic, and political institutions.
When society's moral boundaries are sharp, clear, and secure, and the central norms are strongly held, moral panics are less likely.
Ex: In college, moral panics are more likely
In order to cope with the implications of the new reality, we must construct hard principles.
Social Power Perspective
Definitions of deviance are social constructions and classifies the dominant group as the powerful, decision-makers.
Suggests that definitions of deviance represent one of the coercive means through which the elite maintain their dominance over the masses.
Crime as a legal definition of human conduct is created by agents of the dominant class in a politically organized society.
Formulation definitions of crime
Definitions of crime are composed of behaviors that conflict with the interests of the dominant class.
Applying definitions of Crime
Definitions of crime are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law.
How behavior patterns develop in relation to definitions of crime?
Behavior patterns are structured in relation to definitions of crime, and within this context people engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal.
Probability that persons will develop action patterns with high potential for being defined as criminal depends on what?
1) structured opportunities
2) learning experiences
3) interpersonal associations and identifications, and 4) self-conceptions.
Ideology of Crime
An ideology of crime is constructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony.
Social Reality of Crime
Constructed by the formulation and application of definitions of crime, the development of behavior patterns in relation to these definitions, and the construction of an ideology of crime.
Key focal concerns of every community
Deviance and social reactions
People get pushed into deviance by people's expectations or definitions.
People live up to their deviant, criminal labels.